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ENGL 2802 Final: Canadian Lit. Final Study Guide

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Carleton University
ENGL 2802
Susan Birkwood

Final Study Guide Aut Titl Form/Genre Basic Plot Specific Notes hor e E. J. The Prat Spi Narrativ From “Towards Blank verse perhaps t ke e blank the Last Spike”: reflects how this poem verse about the is about a future that Epic: construction of isn’t defined yet charact the first Less structure and ers transcontinental certainty: shown in the engage railroad line of epic struggle in the Canadian Personification of verbal Pacific Railway landscape: creates and Question of tension; captures physica nation building geography; aligns the l and heritage, people with the land struggl moments of Almost like a civil war: e inclusion and working to make exclusion within themselves better modernist The railway: landscapes symbolically unifies Political context: the country debates between economically and PM John A. physically Macdonald (for Pratt attempting to lift the railway) V. a historical event into Edward Blake the mythological (against) realm: the epic makes Physical tests: it something grand in battle between a way that is not forces of nature necessarily (the Canadian understood today (w/ Shield is cars and planes); personified as a historical V. cultural prehistoric importance monster) V. the Didn’t focus on construction Chinese workers: team and William societal difference Van Horne between then and now Ekphrasis: “Could have been properties…furrowing their faces”; description from famous photo of driving the last spike “Predestination”: Calvinism; Canada predestined for greatness or failure? “she must blend”: the pronoun shows the land reclaiming technology and attributes of it F. R. All Sco Spi Blank Addresses how 1952 V. 1966: tt kes verse: Pratt did not historical and social But metre mention the change in racial the but no labourers and the awareness Las rhyme oppression that Significance as pattern brought Canada Canada for Europeans t Respon the railway and Canada as an se Discusses the immigrant country: poem idea of bourgeois Pratt focuses on the v. aristocratic: greatness of Canada people who tend from itself (ignorant the land should rather than own the land purposefully rude) (John Locke) Response poem: highlights the difference in time periods Title: explicitly expresses the fact that the Chinese nailed all the spikes without the glory of the last Enjambment: emphasizes the discrepancies in the Immigration Act (relate to Indian Act) and discrimination in Canada Donald Smith “sung their story”: shows how Canada glorifies the slavery Casual tone: “Ned”, juxtaposition with serious content W.L .M. Free About the state Stopping the bad V. K. verse of Canada after instigating good: Satire William Lyon makes King sound Political Mackenzie King neutral dies Enjambment Lack of Canadian Significance of using nationalism only initials for title?: ignores significance. Gives us basics but nothing substantial (like King did for the country) Frustration about the non-passing of bills: “postpone” Nationalism in the citizens seems to be something that would illuminate the people to the stasis their country suffers from King “temple” and “mediocracy”: emphasis of King’s short-comings as Scott raised him up only to bring him down more (satire) King’s famous line “Conscription if necessary / But not necessarily conscription” embellish’s the indecision Earl Can e Lit. Rhyme Starts by Echo of patriotic song Birn scheme highlighting Ref. to America: ey : starts aspects of ‘eagle’, ‘Emily with Canadian identity [Dickinson]’ couplet and values Distinction between s aabb, Canada and US: civil then war ballad Eye-rhyme: ‘war' and stanza ‘bore’ abcb Imagery: railway; joins the nation Grammatical parallelism: “we hacked”, “Emily etched” Van cou Prospe Human “There was light”: ref. ver ct destruction of the bible “let there be Lig poem: themselves light” but past tense; hts spatial Action of looking not prospective and out Darkness: “black”, tempor Extensive view of “wraps”, “sucks”, al landscape “wimples” (nun dimensi Light V. dark headgear), “ink”, “jet” ons Lightness: Form: “firefly/haze”, spaces “glowworms”, instead “flames” of “quilt of lamps”: punctu Britain has blackouts ation as not to be a target “spark”: light gets smaller in the scope of things Humans build what they destroy Even when it seems dark there is still agency Ang losa Form: Kennings: “whale- xon alliterati bath” = the ocean, Stre ve “buttrivers”=sewers, et Kennin “sunslope”=sunset gs: a Sa†tire: description of compo WASP Toronto und WWII slogans: inflation word of slogan, deflation of that's a context referen Class distinction ce to “Huns”: slang for an Germans actual thing Bus Poem: hed encounters Agency of with land; humans v. landscape embracing of regionalism Bushed: mental illness that sets from being alone too long in the bush Sublime: mountain Sense of adaption Abraham Moses Klein Genre: Elegy: a formal lyric poem lamenting the death of a friend or public figure, or reflecting seriously on a solemn subject Pastoral elegy: where the dead friend is represented as shepherd mourned by the natural world; usually include mythological figures such as nymphs Conventional divisions: invocation of the muse, expression of grief, procession of mourners, digression (on the church), consolation Heirloom: 1st to 2nd stanza: gets more specific in category, the tone is more engaging 2nd to 3rd stanza: features of the books, signs of the Zodiac are used throughout in participles which gives a suggestion of the calligraphy moving (calligraphy [just the shape of the letters] was a transcribers thoughts on what they were transcribing - appeal to aesthetics) 3rd to 4th stanza: ‘stains’, ‘snuff’ - there is a sense of family heritage in the stains (personal history, not just “some holy books”) “stains” are his “coat of arms” Enjambment: marked change in the tone, emphasis on ‘my’ gives connection of ownership 4th to 5th stanza: heir/hair wordplay Heirloom = kheros lome/bereaved tool (greek) Elegy: ‘miracle’ was ‘weird’ but takes us to him finding the hair (this is the consolation) Turning the leaf in the book, like turning a leaf in his life Enjambment gives the sense of interwoven meanings Tears of now staining: his tears are adding, he is making marks in the personal history ‘too’ joining with the other family members Quatrain form (abab rhyme scheme for most part); iambic pentameter with lots of variations Portrait of the Poet as a Landscape: James Joyce influenced Klein Lycidas: a friend of … who drowned off the coast of Ireland 1. is the poet missing or dead? (shelved Lycidas) 2. poet isn’t dead just ignored, he is an eccentric who takes pleasure in the body of language 3. portrait of those who call themselves poets: question of true/false poets 4. fear of impostors and questions of who has taken the poet’s place 5. digression on fame: is it the poet’s motivation? (no) 6. portrait of the true poet: the nth Adam, a type of cartographer who names and maps (allusion to “Lycidas; and possibly to Elliot’s “The Wasteland”) When there is the question of whether or not the poet is dead, nobody really cares “Seven-circled heir” reference to Dante It is suggested that it is worse that he’s not dead but just ignored References to mirrors: talking about the mimesis- art reflecting life Manic depressive (section 2) In the centre of section 2: his love of language, description of language is description of a woman Play on words with “parol” in french Matter of cartography: reference to “care-takers of art”, reference to tellers in banks “green-shaded” References to Plato: shadows in caves A lack of balance in poets: idea of the doing it for their egos Figure of speech- conflated with synecdoche Mimesis but distorted Romantic poets: to inspire or “breathe” References the poet’s body and then back to mapping/cartography Left with a sense of loss: is it a consolation that he is by himself? Allusive Earle Birney Went to London in 1930s and was active in Europe: went to Berlin and got arrested for refusing to salute to Nazis Anglosaxon Street: Segura Alliterative form Kennings: a compound word that’s a reference to an actual thing (ex. “by the whale- bath” i.e. the ocean); buttrivers = sewers, sunslope = sunset Gives us a satirical description of a WASP community in Toronto WWII slogans: inflation of the slogan, deflation but the context that he puts it in “Ho! Hoy! What!” used at the beginning of the 2-4th stanzas; anglo-saxon Brings in class distinction (stanza 2) Stanza 2: diction “farded” sported makeup Huns = slang term for Germans in WW2 Vancouver Lights: Prospect poem: has spatial and temporal dimensions (usually is about landscape) Looks to humans’ destruction of themselves Difference between light ( overlap, haze, lambent spokes of lighthouse) and darkness (wimples, sucks at stars) Black ink spill almost as if across a map when the view expands to Europe, Africa and Asia Humans are shown as being small in the scope of the universe Agency of the people come in at the end Pluto: far out; now a dwarf planet Play on “let there be light” Can. Lit.: The echo of a patriotic song within the line that suggests that people who want to leave the country can References to America: ‘eagle’ line 2, ‘Emily [Dickinson]’ line 8, ‘civil war’ line 10 (the distinction between Canada and the US is that they went through a civil war), ‘[Walt] Whitman' Eye-rhyme: ‘war’ and ‘bore’ Railway (line 7): seeing the railway as a way to join the nation The railway in relation to Dickinson’s work: ‘hacked’ V. ‘etched’ Grammatical parallelism: “We hacked” V. “Emily etched” Deferral of loneliness, keeping busy to forget about it: alliteration in line 5 ‘lack’ in last line: we tried to use technology for something that literature might do Rhyme scheme: starts with couplets aabb, then ballad stanza abcb Fifteen Dogs by Andre Alexis Andre Alexis: Born in Trinidad (1957), immigrated to Canada (1961) Fifteen Dogs is part of a quincunx Terms: Apologue - a beast fable: a brief tale in verse or prose that conveys a moral lesson, usually by giving human speech and manners to animals and inanimate things. Moral is often delivered in the form of an epigram Epigram: a brief satirical statement 3 Gods: Apollo: Hermes: thieves, travellers and messages Lots about translation and interpretation Sense of the gods being bored Attitudes towards humans: condescending The Poems: Have the dogs’ names in them Composed by Prince: pg 28, 29, 34, 75, 81 (x2), 93, 101, 106, 149, 157, 165 Composed by Majnoun: pg 125, 126, 137 When the dogs first get human intelligence: Reflections come through The matter of language The need to find a leader Atticus: master figure Is Prince abusing poetry/language? Notion of power and love: the opposite of love is not hate, it’s power (quote from something else) Atticus and Benji: master-slave dynamic from Hegel ***See CuLearn course page for chart on philosophers and their relationship with the novel’s themes Prince and Language: Pg 26: Atticus wants them to go back to the old way of being because they realize social constraints Pg 27: Prince annoys the dogs with ideas and “useless questions” Prince's use of language is seen as an affront to clarity Prince preforms his poetry: later there is a concern about the dogs preforming “dogness”, because they aren’t just dogs anymore Notions of the secret name Prince preforms the 2nd poem: Max gets mad that Prince has surpassed what he considers to be a dog Pg 131: Majnoun and Atticus are talking, Atticus is talking about wanted to be a dog again. Idea of purity Atticus wants to repress their new way of thinking, he can’t imagine a new notion of belonging Pg 30: have they been fighting over power or over words Pg 34 - Atticus and Max try to purge: that is very human of them but they don’t acknowledge it Go from notion of dominance in the pack to Nietzche Fifteen Dogs by Andre Alexis (Pt. 2) Being Helplessly Free: Condescending humans Passage of time Not being able to feel like a dog Agatha Dying: Agatha dies first: she stays behind and gets put down Agatha = good in greek Prince’s Abuse of Language: Transgression of what it means to be a dog Benji and Atticus: Matter of hierarchy Benji is a liar Pg 101: Benji uses the new way of thinking for his own benefits He is logical just immoral: they are in a situation where it is either pretend to be more doglike, live on your own or be killed, he tried to get each person to like him Atticus: all about impurity (reference to him ‘cleansing’) Bobbi: chooses exile, and the dogs kill her Benji - as observer (pg 62): has admiration for the conspirator, conspirators are seen as another type of ‘creature’ pg 62: Dougie and Benji are “dogs imitating dogs” The natural turns to imitation: Plato’s idea of art and imitation Dougie killing a cat: dominance Benji (68): a dignified choice to leave the house Dougie is killed when they go back to the pack: Benji (71) is scared and then angry The killing of Dougie wasn’t of decisive action Pg 70-71: the dogs don’t sound domesticated; like dogs Pg 74: Benji wonders why they have to keep mounting dogs; he wonders why the lowest of the pack can’t mount the leader and it makes him feel empowered Notion of reliance and dominance Pg 75: reference to revolutionary thought; a poem with Dougie’s name Benxi starts to plot the overthrow; he leads Atticus to the garden of death Benji later finds death within the home as he eats poisonous food from a trap Dog’s Sense of Smell: Prince as he dies can still smell Benji doesn't know that Atticus has been granted a last wish Zeus comes in with a sense of balance and justice after Benji gets used to the house Fifteen Dogs by Andre Alexis (Pt. 3) Majnoun: Pg 120-2: they talks about nature and culture, what is natural and what is constructed by society Nira and Majnoun: talk about sex (later talk about sex v. making love) Majnoun thinks in terms of the pack; he thinks that Nira is feigning ignorance Pg 122: Majnoun has to decide whether to stay after someone challenges his status or to leave. He would rather die than hurt Nira, so he leaves Majnoun and Benji: Benji inadvertently inserts himself and suggests dominance over Majnoun; with Majnoun he decides to put Nira first Hermes: intervenes in Majnoun’s dream Pg 122: staged feel to the dream Pg 123: Hermes gives Majnoun the gift of proper interpretation with Nira, so they will never misunderstand each other Pg 125: the gift is described as a burden; it is not a natural thing because even humans don’t understand each other that way They are knighted in a way that isn’t organic, leads to the notion that there will be a tragic fallout Majnoun decides that English is the best language suited to dogs: enter the world of the arts Majnoun has a new understanding of humans as well: here’s a conversation between a man and woman Pg 125-6: poems that Majnoun wrote; have the names Frick and Frack Frick and Frack: dogs who attached Majnoun He also wrote a short story: seemed not to have closure Desires for food and sex Pg 129: Nira brings in notion of making love; different in language - Majnoun says ‘like’ and ‘fucking’ The Same Dream: Pg 132: dog and human have the same dream They each see the other’s face in the water Dream seems more like a consequence of Hermes interference The Mirror Stage: like when a child doesn’t understand themselves in a mirror The Fates: Pg 133 Miguel, Nira and Majnoun: fates are tied Fate gets annoyed that someone’s been interfering: she cuts to and then adds years to the one who’s left Pg 134: Majnoun sees a struggle for dominance between Miguel and Nira; Majnoun is now the observer and encourages some distance. Because of the ties between lives we find that Majnoun is fated to live longer than the others Parallel that the dog is left and human doesn’t return Benxi, Clare and Randy V. Majnoun, Nira and Miguel: Benji looses touch with the signs of dominance while Majnoun stays alert about it all the time Majnoun doesn’t consider that Nira is dead: he waits for her forever, kind of goes back to the human assumption of the loyalty of dogs Considering they are so close you’d expect him to know: but maybe because he is alive he would never expect his “reflection” to be dead It’s more heart-breaking that he doesn’t know; it’s kind of like he’s choosing exile again, the loyalty is also a resistance to entering another pack He waits: the word “vigil” is used repetitively, has a spiritual aspect (devotional watching, religious observance) Pg 141: He thinks about a lot of things in order to stay alert while he’s waiting- he wondered what it meant to be human? what it meant to be a dog? and how that affected his waiting His waiting lasts 5 yrs Zeus: “allows himself” to notice Majnoun suffering for longer than he should have to Hermes’s Intervention with Majnoun: Pg 144: Apollo has been gloating, thinking he’s going to win Hermes has more thought about this and doesn’t use obvious deceit He chats with Majnoun as the Black poodle Pg 145: Majnoun says he cannot leave the house to go with Nira Pg 147: Majnoun asks Hermes what love means Hermes takes Majnoun through Nira’s heartbeats and Majnoun finds it unbearable to stay without Nira Hermes = psychopomp: guides souls to the underworld Prince - the last dog standing: Pg 149: Poem with the name Bobby Klein’s “Poet as a portrait of a landscape” Pg 152-3: Prince thinks about language Dogs getting distracted: Prince gets separated from Kim by running after an animal; uses “squirrel” in a poem Pg 154: Prince’s second exile; suffering from depression Pg 153: Atticus is forced into the passage Apollo: mentioned as the god of plague and poetry The only thing that Prince cares about is poetry: this will live after he dies (unlike Nira for Majnoun) Prince stays at multiple houses: he doesn’t join one house because he doesn’t like staying in one place Once Apollo takes his sight and he has to stay in one place his condition worsens quite quickly He also finds humans distracting The Sense of Smell: The landscape is alive to Prince in terms of smells Importance of sensory details is emphasized Then Apollo wants to win the bet so badly he blinds Prince: Prince starts to resemble Job with the afflictions Apollo elevates Prince by putting him in parallel with other great poets (ex. Homer), but physically takes him down (ex. Prince falls down the stairs) Pg 155: Apollo makes Prince suffer (15th dog is 15 at the end of his life) Prince’s Journey: Becomes a sort of epic: like Tennesses poem Map in the novel becomes a signifier of his journey Journey takes him a while where it usually wouldn’t Awareness of how others might see his movements: "staggering as though drunk” Final House: Family could hurt him but doesn’t His condition does deteriorate Hearing leaves and he stops eating and drinking: happens often with the elderly when they decide they can pass Pg 164: he missed his territory but his memory becomes sharper. Recreation in his imagination is consolation for him Pg 165: poem with the name ‘Agatha’ in it. She was the first dog to die but the last one named Thanatos: idea of the Prince finds the loss of language upsetting, is generally okay with dying Pg 165: Prince recites the poetry to the woman because he worries that he’s been “selfish” that he was trying to keep the language pure. He wants to transmit it to the woman, he is happy/grateful as she repeats it Pg 167: consolation comes; he can still smell the air, he can still remember Kim Goes from loss to consolation Pg 167: one of his poems comes to him, goes to a sense of wonder and gratitude Prince is happy at death; due to the beauty of language and the potential that is always there He gets a final gift: Hermes starts thinking about death, he actually longs for death although he is immortal Pg 170: power and love; after it all it’s love that they’re left with Also an assertion that poetry is eternally new Prince’s soul returns briefly to consciousness and returns to the prairie (where he wanted to be with Kim, the only human name he wanted to keep) Birney and Purdy Bushed by Earle Birney Movement and activity within the landscape “Bushed”: a mental illness that sets from being alone too long in the bush (can also mean ‘tired’) Movement from agency to passivity (verbs): invented, built, was out, found, tried, knew, could only… wait A rainbow in culture (biblical): rainbow promises that God will never flood the Earth again Lightning: the invention gets struck down by nature (struck it, shattered it [parallelism]) Sublime: the mountain; we get a sense of the scale; cognitive processes are being affected by nature (the mind slows) Sublime: power and the character’s smallness on the scale Sense of adaptation: trying to impose order on the landscape; “built” and “learned” 3 sections of 3 lines each: him trying to impose an order on the landscape and his days “Yet” and “but” “At first” Stanza 3: soft consonance ‘f’ and ‘m' Shift to 5 lines a stanza: the mountain is personified (alive); now the mountain has agency “Dawn”, “sundown”, “sunset”: sense of darkness that’s falling “he tried his eyes”: he’s trying but not doing; it’s tentative; gives him amateur status Ospreys: a kind of fishing bird Valkyries: in Norse mythology it is one of a host of female figures who choose those who may die in battle and those who may live Word choice in 2nd last stanza: “unknown totems”; “beardusky” coined term The modifications: adds character; gives them more agency The owls “deride” him (chided): psychological projection that sends him further into passivity; notion of bushed (paranoia) The landscape is a hostile entity Poised- it’s own line: sharpening of the arrowhead Enjambment Land claiming power back “cut-throat” a type of trout: usually spelt without the hyphen but this suggests something about the nature The Country North of Belleville by Al Purdy: Palimpsest = landscape: scraping off the surface of manuscripts to reuse them; notion that there are layers of what was there before Notion of layers in the land Ubi sunt: transitoriness of life and beauty (asks: “where are they now?”) North of Belleville: in Canadian Shield land Farmer as Sisyphus: elevates the farmer but undercuts because it’s futile Maps the landscape with vocals and language Country of “quiescence”: a dormant land Country described as a “lean” land “wife” and “cows” then back to the noble effort of being a “fool” Formatting- not all along one margin: the stones moving The indentation is consistent: when he talks about blowing “illusions”: go from concrete to something abstract which keeps the farmer doing that kind of work “Old fences”, “ghost purpose”, “vaguely”: something is there but not significant (lack of definition, the fences can’t define boundaries) “meaning” and “meaningless”: repetition of loss “cities under water”: seeing something through the water distorts it; sense of layering (losing our direct connection) “of our defeat” V. “of defeat”: repetition Part where he looks at the sunset while blowing: myth of Sisyphus but happy, the other side of the argument, it is not a bad way to age Descends again: “young leave quickly” Parallel: “lakeland rockland” with the beginning Marginal: adjacent in location but it also isn’t great farmland; a little removed “we”: comes from nowhere “of our defeat” Last 3 lines: effort to keep it in the memory but it is a sad line; separation between “we” and “long time” Swamp Angel by Ethel Davis Wilson Bases: Pilgrims’ Progress: vanity fair Wilson: was an experienced flyfisher Everlasting Web: Pg 210: “no man is an island” - John Donne The sentence structure gives the notion of the never ending web Pg 190-1: "These earthenware… by him”; the sentence structure suggests everything is interconnected. Art, pleasure, the people who’s made it, Maggie, etc. Maggie is put into the web of relationships The shot chapters: gives a cinematic air; repetition of words between different chapters gives an air of how a scene ends and starts again Chapter 6 ends with Maggie getting on the bus, chapter 13 is Maggie on the bus: the time in between is focused on filling in the story 10 20 50: no commas, moves us through Maggie’s Stasis: Mrs. Vardo to Mrs Llyod: when she gets a job Maggie is suffering from a sense of stasis in marriage and in the place: movement with the birds (and fish); she ties them because she uses bird feathers to catch the fish and they are flying fish Maggie wants to leave: terrible marriage, Eddie is very full of himself Pg 2 - 2nd paragraph: Maggie is calm basically all the time, when she does get angry it’s a blowup. Notion of humiliation (pg 15-16), sense of stasis In the taxi: she experiences “new time” because she is free Notion of Freedom: Epigraph about the swamp angel: the revolver is a major symbol in the novel, swamp angel is associated with the American civil war and the mention of ending slavery (compared to Maggie’s marriage) In the taxi (pg 15): “house that had been called her home” uses passive voice, implication being that it isn’t really a home to her The stasis/fixed point: movement away from Edward is described as a flight Edward is in real-estate: ironic Mr. Spencer’s shop (pg 4): she gives the name Lloyd, the name “Vardo died in her mouth” She’s a housewife in the 1950s: she doesn’t want to involve other people in her drama so she gets a job; one thing Maggie has to realize is that it is okay for her friends to help her Return (and recovery) to the past identity as she moves away from her husband It is Ms Lloyd who leaves in the taxi and boards the bus: she travels away in her reclaimed past identity Mini-escapes: She goes to Chinatown: she buys peacock feathers there (pg 17); her imagination escapes the stasis of her home life The cheap yellow bowl: becomes like a talisman When she leaves Edward she has to pack lightly so he won’t notice: on the first night after she leaves she touches it like a child as she falls asleep (meaning of the bowl shifts as the story goes on) The family who runs the “Universal Taxi” is of interest to her: Maggie had a daughter who died of Polio, a lot of the women had only one children; there is a family dynamic that is admired between them References to Routes Maggie Considers: 2 main roads, and a 3rd route Mention of the city of Vancouver taking over the forested area Pg 12-13: routes, landscape and construction Moments at looking at development of the city taking over natural areas Description on pg 13 Swamp Angel by Ethel Davis Wilson (Pt. 2) Arrival at 3 Loon Lake: Arthurian references and christian references Chapter 18- pg 84 Pg 87: lodge built in Scandinavian fashion Marriage that’s in trouble: one hates the lake the other loves it Vera: jealousy is her defining feature Pg 92: the yellow bowl Pg 95: the meeting between people are described; she steps back and does the universal view (like with the taxi), with respect to the meeting of humans Pg 108: reference to Maggie’s relationship with the lake as a happy marriage; very different to the one she experienced with Eddie Pg 125: she moves her bed outside; comparison to her experience in Vancouver. It’s on the porch She gets freedom as opposed to the “four walls” Singularity in feminism: there is no mention of relationships here (not even a lawyer) Scene with the deer and the kitten (pg 126): a little too romanticized “disney-like" Pg 127: the kitten is domestic but there is still a wild creature in all of it Maggie Swimming: Chapter 22: gives us the view of Maggie as a swimmer Images of water: her movement Movement around obstacles The man on the bus (pg 76): calls her “girly”; moves around the obstacle and takes another seat Swimming is something she does alone Reference to her avatar: can’t be a seal or porpoise, she has to live on land “Courtesy week or flame-thrower”: who wouldn’t want to be a seal given the burden of human relations? Metamorphosis in the water: a fluid material and identity Also a reference to God The Revolver: Symbolic for the swamp Symbolic for Maggie Nell (78yr old woman): Pg 28: Eddie and Nell is twirling the revolver like a prop Pg 54: the revolver is also called Nell’s “habitual companion” Both female characters have to sever ties to someone/thing Nell realizes that Eddie is quick to anger with not much self control The circumstances to which she gives up the revolver: notion that the gun is something she shouldn’t have and when she gives it away it has a sort of power Nell’s severance: the gun connects her to her father and back to Philip and her youth Quality to identify Nell: she is perceived as being eccentric The gun to Philip: … Hilda (pg 52-3): feels put out by her mother by the gun; sense of neglect and rivalry Hilda is sent to boarding school: she couldn’t travel with her parents; she is made fun of
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