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Chapter 1-Maps.docx

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GEOG 1010
Joyce Lundberg

Chapter 1 - MAPS Map: a generalized view of an area (a model) as seen from above and reduced in size Geography employs spatial analysis of 5 topics: • types of maps • map elements • coordinate systems • map projections • geomatics There are 3 types of maps: Planimetric- Show horizontal positions (of boundaries, bodies of water, economic, & cultural features, etc) ex, road maps Thematic- (Planimetric) + Add spatial distribution of some type of data over a geographic area, qualitative or quantitative. Topographic- Add portrayal of physical relief through the use of contour lines that connect all points at the same elevation. Illustrates: Natural physical features (topography: slopes, high points, depressions; water bodies: rivers, lakes, canals, vegetation, submerged areas and bogs) and Infrastructure and other human made features (boundaries, mines, buildings, roads, transmission lines and pipelines) 4 Map Elements 1. Map Scale- Scale: the ratio of distance on a map to that on the earth (1:1 = 1cm:1cm). Small scale: large denominator, not a lot of detail, shows a large geographic area. Large scale: small denominator, shows a great deal of detail, covers a much smaller area. Can be shown as a fraction, ratio, written/verbal/ or graphical. 2. Contour Lines (Elevation) – A contour is an imaginary line that joins points of equal elevation above sea level [ASL]. They are drawn at constant elevation intervals [ex. 10, 20, 30, etc.], visual impression of Typography. Slope (gradient) is the change in elevation per unit of horizontal distance [rise over run, elevation over map distance]. Widely spaced contours -> Gentle Slope; narrowly spaced -> Steep Slope; uniformly spaced contours -> Uniform Slope. Rules: Never intersect, never split or divide, always closed, hill = concentric contours, depression = concentric hachured contours, River valley: V, base pointing upstream, Ridge: V or U, base pointing downwards 3. North Arrow- True North (“geodetic” north- 0 degrees): geographic north pole, Magnetic North: point where magnetic field points vertically downwards. Directions: (“azimuth”) compass direction. Magnetic declination: angle b/t true north and magnetic north 4. Reference Grid- Spatial Reference Systems (coordinate systems): used to define absolute positioning [locations] on a map; tied to the Earth, never changes. Geographic Grid (latitude/longitude): a grid to locate points on a sphere, covers the whole Earth, will only work if you know what shape the earth is! Odd Fact: Earth’s shape is Spherical but it’s “squished” (oblate ellipsoid), also it’s not really smooth -> Geoid = sea-level surface extended throughout continents (gravity is perpendicular to the geoid) Geographic Grid: Latitude Sexagesimal scale, base 60 (degrees, minutes, seconds) Origin: the center of the earth Latitude: Angle w/ equator (Nor S), from center of earth - 1 deg. lat. @ 90 deg. = 111.7 km, 1 deg. lat. @ 40 deg. = 111.0 km, 1 deg. lat. @ 0 deg. = 110.6 km - Not all the same because the earth isn’t perfect sphere Parallel: Line connecting the same latitude Geographic Grid: Longitude Longitude: Angle w/ Prime Meridian (E or W) from the center of the earth - 1 deg. long. @ 90 deg. = 0 km, 1 deg. long. @ 40 deg. = 85.4 km, 1 deg. long. @ 0 deg. = 111.32 km Meridian: Line connecting the same longitude –Converge at poles Coordinate Systems A. Lat./.Long – Lat. then Long. B. Rectangular Grid Systems: (x, y) on a regular grid, minimal distortion - for relatively small areas, most common in general use = Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) [“Read right, then up”] Easting: distance from one meridian of that zone Northing: distance from the equator - E-W: globe divided into 60 zones, 6º wide - N-S: globe divided into 20 zones, 8º high Map Datums - Geographical and UTM coordinate systems are positioned on the ellipsoid by a “datum” - Datum: the reference point from which measurements are made Global Positioning Systems (GPS) - GPS: navigational tool developed for military purposes - System consists of satellites and a receiver - Receiver locks on to the signal of the satellites and determines the position through triangulation (can pin-point a spot to within metres BUT needs unobstructed view of satellites) Map Projections - Globe is the only true representation of the Earth - Maps provide a two-dimensional representation of the earth but this results in distortion - Cannot show both area and shape correctly on one map - Correct Area: Mallweide (oval) Projection, Correct Shape: Mercator (cylindrical) Projection - The standard line: con
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