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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

History Study Notes Mesopotamia - Religious Society - Followed the Law Code of Hammubari - Oaths were very important - Beaurocracy - Society always repaid someone when they had a problem. IE if a house ever collapsed and killed a son inside, the builders son would be put to death - Relationships were regulated by the law, too important to leave the future of their society to its own devices - Men treated better than women - “Eye for an Eye” was in full effect. Equal status meant equal punishment - Father-Son relationship was important - Gods were worshipped, however just because you worshipped the gods it was no guarantee that the gods would be fair to you - Afterlife sucked according to them Egypt - Established a little after Mesopotamia - Temple worship, the strongest man led the country, believed gods had a human form - Nile was generous source of water and nutrients for soil - Well organized, had lots of man power and were very efficient. The building of the pyramids prove this - Everything was controlled by one man: The Pharaoh - Pharaoh was believed to be a god - They had mathematics and geometry as we see with the pyramids - Had 3000 years of peace and prosperity until the romans conquered them - Afterlife was good according to them - Big part of their success was their very efficient agriculture Israelites - Began as a wandering group of nomads - Tough and resourceful people - Believed Bible was the word of god. Adopted Moses and the flood story from the Mesopotamians - Established in Palestine - Moses was granted the 10 commandments from God. - Only monotheistic people in the world at this time. They were very stubborn about the idea that there is only one god - Believed in ethical monotheism. Although they broke the 10 commandments many times and lost god’s protection - Had an amazing sense of self - King Saul helped unite the Hebrews to conquer the Philistines. - Soloman was their best ruler for the next 3000 years. After his death, the empire was divided into north and south. North was Isreal, South was Judah - North was taken over by Syrians under the rule of Cyrus - Cyrus took hostages and kept them for 50 years Greece - Had a rational approach to the world - Brought many new things to our world like the idea of democracy - Foundation of civilization was created from following the ideas of their neighbours “The Minoans” - Greeks eventually destroyed the Minoans - Was not one single country, there were many separate city states that made up Greece like Athens and Sparta - Dominated the world with the power of the Hoplite, a military man who is disciplined and armed with a spear, shield and armor - The Phalanx, if properly executed, was an amazing military strategy that could conquer any military power at that time - Every greek man wanted to be a Hoplite because of the amount of respect and the things that you get for being one - Greeks were the first civilization to put focus on the individual and the idea of Arete (striving for personal excellence). - Athens was a city that excelled in many different aspects like philosophy, art, and military. They were especially good at promoting the idea of Arete. They were a democracy. Arguably the best of the Greek cities according to Pericles - Sparta was different because they believed in just excelling in military. They did not have a democracy, rather they had an obligarchy (ruled by few). All men in this city were destined to become warriors. They were the best of the Greek warriors. Very violent as opposed to the passive Athens - Persians brought an end to Greek independence by 540 BC. They conquered all of the Greek polis’ by 540 - Sparta and Athens both tried to lead a league against the Persians which caused an internal war nd - This gave an opportunity for a young Greek Philip 2 of Macedonia to step in and become king of Greece - His son “Alexander the Great” decided to conquer Persia and became the greatest conqueror the world had ever known. He died at age 32 from sickness - The creation of Ecumene or Hellenistic World guaranteed that the Greek civilization would be remembered forever Rome - First Civilization to be known as a republic - Took a lot from what Greek culture had to offer - Started from tiny villages on the Tigris river - Classes in this Civ were: Aristocrats, Commoners, Patricians - Had a senate that was made of 700 aristocrats or other wealthy men to make decisions for the people of rome. - Had a highly developed legal system. Had 3 laws: Ius Civilis (Civil Law) Ius Gentium (Law of Peoples) Ius Naturale (Natural Law) - Everyone had equal opportunity to rise to the top of civilization however not everyone had the same rights - The idea that non royal birth and that anyone could be a part of this society was a political breakthrough that no one had ever seen. - Also fought with Phalanx warfare - Roman military men were not loyal to rome itself, they were loyal to their general. This was because he was the man who lead them to victory and glory. This caused many Generals to be able to march against the city herself - Defeated the Carthagian peoples. This allowed the Romans to conquer most of eastern Europe - Had an urban culture - Cato was a roman who believed that any changes to their ways of life were not a good idea, especially the idea of making men and women equals. Rome was intensely male dominated although most women could read and write - Julius Caesar brought down the republic, he was an aristocrat and great general - Caesar colaberated with 2 other men (Pompey, Crassus) in taking down rome, although he ended up betraying them both and becoming leader of rome. He made it a dictatorship - Caesars biggest accomplishment in his short rule was making it possible for all people to be able to become romans. He brought many non romans into their society and made them romans - Made the 365 day calendar. Called it the Julian Calender. July is still named after Caesar - After Caesar, every leader of rome would be called a Caesar. He is often blamed for killing the republic. However many people believe what he did was necessary because change was needed. - Caesar was succeeded by his Grand-Nephew Octavian (Augustus Caesar) - Augustus was much kinder than Caesar to his people and to the senate because he did not want to be murdered like his uncle - Augustus sponsored many great artists and writers. They made him look like a god on his deathbed - Cracked down on poor morality and adultery - Had to push back barbarians, and did so successfully - Gladiators were very popular in old rome - Rome began to fall after the death of Marcus Arrellius. The empire fell apart from internal problems and the constant pushing of the barbarians. - The power in the world began to go to the Villa’s that were ruled by a lord and were surrounded by villages - There was civil war thanks to two dictators. The last leader of rome was Constantine who’s city, Constantinople, was the last to fall in Rome Islam - Muhammad was the messiah of the Islamic people. He is responsible for writing the Qur’an (muslim holy book) - Muslim(meaning to submit) was a competing religion against Christianity and the Jews - Named their god Alah - Muhammad believed there was a place for the Christians and the Jews, he merely thought they were very misguided - Did not believe moses and jesus were divine, just prophets of god. He believed himself to be the last prophet of God - Was buried in Mecca, which is a pilgrimage center - Know the 5 pillars of Islam, in note Oct. 31 st - Most describe the pilgrimage to Mecca as an amazing experience and one of the greatest of their lives - Islamic peoples refused to separate politics from religion - Those who were not muslims were called Infidels. They are seen as enemies - No religion in the entire world has ever spread as fast as Islam did Medieval Society - Largely rural rather than urban - Mo
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