History Terms-Semester 2
Konrad Adenaur: Chancellor of the FRG. Reduced government influence, turned economy more to the
right. Highly supported a French-German alliance. Treaty of Rome, steps towards unified Europe. Created
public healthcare, and weakened labour unions.
Walter Ulbricht: GDR Chancellor, was a nationalist Communist. Indoctrination with the Pioneers
(communist Girl Guides/Boy Scouts). Limited consumer goods produced. Part of the Warsaw Pact.
Massive emmigration. Collectivism of Agriculture resulted in no growth in that industry. Forced out of
Labour Government: 1945 General Elections winner. Nationalization of major companies (especially coal
and steel). Move towards centre left economically. National Health Service. Led by Clemant Atelee. Tries
to solve housing shortage.
Les Trentes Glorieuses (1945-1975): Period of prosperity. High economic growth (consumerism, and
urbanization). Standard of living was better than ever before. Then the oil crisis hit and everything
Alexander Dubcek: Strongly opposed Novotny. Slovak reformist communist. Aimed to “correct the
distortions of socialist legality”. Economic reforms. Three commitments of the Dubcek government.
Prague Spring: Full reforms take place, avoid anti-Russian gestures. 2000 Words statement June 1968.
Czech party aims to incorporate democratic elements. Leads to Soviet Invasion in 1968 (but it was really
member of the WP that did the dirty work). No Czech military response and was not bloody.
Leader=Dubcek (was not killed but replaced by Gustav Husak). Sends the message that any liberal reform
in prohibited. This also punctured the confidence of the US, we were trying to establish peaceful co-
Janos Kadar: Hungary 1956-88. Instituted a more liberal form of Communism (Goulash Communism
though it was very rigid and strict at first). "Those not against us are with us". Limited free speech
(Tolerate, Support, Ban=things that you could say or not). Was good friends with Brechnev, which is why
his liberalized government was tolerated. Higher quality of living that other Eastern Euro countries.
New Economic Mechanism: limited private ownership (weekend cottages, and able to work in a 2nd
economy), 1960s Hungary becomes a consumer society and tourist destination. Loyal to Moscow but not
Instability in Italy: Christian Democrats dominated (supported EU). Lock of a unifying leader (coalitions
occuring, extreme rightsmonarchists and neo fascists) Severe economic issues (North=industrial,
South=Agrarian). Historic compromise? Communists and Christian Democrats.
Antonio de Olivera Salazar: Portugal leader 1932-68. Was described as a mild dictator. Tried to introduce
very small aspects of democracy. There were extreme economic problems (ie. widespread poverty and
undernourishment) Dictatorship falls due to these economic issues. Francisco Franco: Spanish leader, was very anti-communist (which is why the West turned a blind eye to
his dictatorship). There was widespread poverty and many challenges to his authority (from monarchists
and other political groups). Student protests. The Basques and Catalans wanted more autonomy. Regime
fall when Franco dies.
Enver Hoxha: Albania 1944-85. Has strong relations with China. Stalinist type dictator. Declared Albania
the first fully Athiest country. Party of Labour led and its members a much high standard of living. Purges
continued until Hoxha's death.
Ramiz Alia: Reformist but had no vision for the future of Albania (basically just wanted to preserve
communism). Never went through a revolutionnary stage like other Eastern Euro countries. Order
breaking down quickly (fear of anarchy). Student protests eventually call for more multi-parliamentary
democracy and Alia is removed from office.
Todar Zhivkov: Bulgarian leader 1954-89. Pro-soviet (eastern othodox similar to Russia) In some ways
was a neo-Stalinist. "Quiet Revolution" in 1989 where is Bulgaria Socialist Party wins. In 1991 the former
King runs for office and wins.
Slobodan Milosevic: Leads Serbian Communist Party in 1989. Patriotic, pro-Serbian speech in Kosovo
(1989). Reduced autonomy in Vojvodina and Kosovo. Leads to Croatia and Slovenia to attempt to declare
independence. Slovenia is not stopped because they are little Serbes, but Croatia is attacked and 1/3 of
its population is 'cleansed'.
War in Croatia 1991: Massive ethnic cleansing. The UN sends 14000 peacekeepers but there is no peace
to keep. March 1992, Bosnians vote for independence. More ethnic cleansing of Bosnian Muslims and
Croats. UN Safe zones are joke and are attacked by the Serbs. Huge disgrace for UN.
Siege of Sarajevo: April 6 1992. No food or supplies coming into Bosnia. Sarajevo surrounded by
mountains, army hidden, shooting and bombing the city. 12000 civilians murdered (many were children)
Lasted for 3 years. Highly embarrassing for the Europe as they couldn't/didn't stop the genocide.
Bosnian-Serb Regime: Premier Radocan Karadzic. 200 000 Bosnians killed in 2-3 years. 1 Million fled or
were deported. 60% residential areas destroyed. International failure.
Dayton Peace Accord: 12 Dec 1995. Signed in Ohio, US. Bill Clinton was a major force behind this accord.
Determined the fate of Bosnia (became a federation of 2 autonomous republics, seperated by ethnicity
and both have their own police and military)
Terrance O'Neal:replaced Brockborough (the long standing PM of Northern Ireland, 20 years.
Implemented drastic reforms. First PM to 'chat' with Independant Republic of Ireland. Street fights
between Protestants and Catholics.
Troubles in Ireland 1966-98: British Gov't O'Neal as concern grows about instability of country. Increase
their militant and it becomes the largest presence of British soldiers ever. O'Neal resigns. Americanization of Europe: Dominance of the US film industry and the 1960s Hollywood era. Coca
Colonization. Charles de Gaulle resisted and attempted to pursue French Independence. Britain was not
as worried as the US was not received as a threat. A "take what we want" attitude. Also had key icons
invaded US culture at this time as well (Beatles eg.)
End of the Iron Curtain: Gyula Horn (Hungary) and Alois Mock (Austira) talk about how to dismantle to
barbed wire fence that separates the borders. Get together and physically cut through a section of the
Pan-European Picnic: August 19, 1989. 600 GDR citizens cross the border into Austria. By September
1989, 13000 East Germans has escaped in Austria. Wall falls within months.
Josip Tito: Post-1956 tension with Stalin. Independent foreign policy. Yugoslav expulsion from Communist
Information Bureau in June 1948St Vitus' Day basically independent from the soviet union. Yugoslav