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Events People Things.docx

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HIST 1002
Christopher Adams

Events/People/Things Benito Mussolini: “Il Dulce”. One of the founders of Italian Fascism. His execution and public humiliation prompted Hitler’s suicide. 1883-1945. Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 were: his public works programmes such as the taming of the Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job opportunities, the public transport, and the so-called Italian economic battles. Mussolini also solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See. On 10 June 1940, Mussolini led Italy into World War II on the side of the Axis despite initially siding with France against Germany in the early 1930s. Believing the war would be short-lived, he declared war on France and the United Kingdom in order to gain territories in the peace treaty that would soon follow. Fascism: An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization a political ideology of the extreme right that blends authoritarianism, paternalism and capitalism; supports hierarchical view of society and builds its appeal on nationalism. Opposition to communism and the use of force. Though in reality, force was used under Mussolini Corporatism: The control of a state or organization by large interest groups. Cult of Personality: established by media and propaganda. Intense devotion to a particular person NSDAP-National Socialist Workers’ Party: the Nazi Party of Germany. Under Hitler from 33- 45. Racial/biological anti-Semitism: Aryans: (in Nazi ideology) A person of Caucasian race not of Jewish descent Hoover Moratorium: a public statement issued by U.S. President Herbert Hoover on June 20, 1931, which he hoped would ease the coming international economic crisis, as well as provide time for recovery. Hoover's proposition was to put a one-year moratorium (pause) on payments of World War I and other war debt, postponing the initial payments, as well as interest. Many were outraged by this idea. There was a roaring disapproval from France, as well as many unenthusiastic US citizens. Despite this negative reaction, it went on to gain support from fifteen nations by July 6 Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism is a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority. It is opposed to individualism and democracy. ... The Great Depression: The Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929 and rapidly spread worldwide. The market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth and personal advancement Paul von Hindenburg: Hindenburg retired from the German Army in October, 1918, but continued to take an active interest in politics. In 1925 Hindenburg replaced Friedrich Ebert as President of Germany. Re-elected in 1932 he did not oppose the rise of Adolf Hitler and in January 1933, appointed him Chancellor. Paul von Hindenburg was so popular with the German people that Hitler was unable to overthrow constitutional government until his death in 1934. Nazism: The ideology of Adolf Hitler’s NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party), including a Führer’s totalitarian government, racism, nationalist territorial expansion (Lebensraum) and state control of the (war) economy Franz von Papen: was a German nobleman, Roman Catholic monarchist politician, General Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and as Vice- Chancellor under Adolf Hitler in 1933–1934. A member of the Catholic Centre Party until 1932, he was one of the most influential members of the group of close advisers to President Paul von Hindenburg in the late Weimar Republic. It was largely Papen, believing that Hitler could be controlled once he was in the government, who persuaded Hindenburg to put aside his scruples and approve Hitler as Chancellor in a cabinet not under Nazi Party domination. However, Papen and his allies were quickly marginalized by Hitler and he left the government after the Night of the Long Knives, during which some of his confidants were killed by the Nazis. Gleichschaltung: the process by which theNazi regime successively established a system of totalitarian control and tight coordination over all aspects of society. The historian Richard J. Evans translated the term as "forcible-coordination" in his most recent work on Nazi Germany. Night of the long Knives: murder of important figures that were carried out by the Nazi party Dachau: Autobahn: The German autobahns are the nationally coordinated motorway system in Germany. Hitler commissioned it Triumph of the Will: a propaganda film made by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi [1] Party Congress inNuremberg, which was attended by more than 700,000 Nazi supporters. The film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including portions of speeches by Adolf Hitler, interspersed with footage of massed party members. Hitler commissioned the film and served as an unofficial executive producer; his name appears in the opening titles. The overriding theme of the film is the return of Germany as a great power, with Hitler as the True German Leader who will bring glory to the nation. One of the best known propaganda films ever made Leni Riefenstahl: filmmaker who made the Triumph of the Will Habsburg Empire: Hungarian Empire 1867 Compromise: The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 (German: Ausgleich, Hungarian: Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria- Hungary Linguistic Diversity in Austria-Hungary: many different cultures/languages. Made to speak Hungarian The Nationality Bill: Magyarization: L’udovit Stur: was the leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, the author of the Slovak language standard eventually leading to the contemporary Slovak literary language German Unification: The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at t
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