Benito Mussolini: “Il Dulce”. One of the founders of Italian Fascism. His execution and public
humiliation prompted Hitler’s suicide. 1883-1945.
Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 were: his public
works programmes such as the taming of the Pontine Marshes, the improvement of job
opportunities, the public transport, and the so-called Italian economic battles. Mussolini also
solved the Roman Question by concluding the Lateran Treaty between the Kingdom of Italy and
the Holy See.
On 10 June 1940, Mussolini led Italy into World War II on the side of the Axis despite initially
siding with France against Germany in the early 1930s. Believing the war would be short-lived,
he declared war on France and the United Kingdom in order to gain territories in the peace
treaty that would soon follow.
Fascism: An authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social
a political ideology of the extreme right that blends authoritarianism, paternalism and capitalism;
supports hierarchical view of society and builds its appeal on nationalism. Opposition to
communism and the use of force. Though in reality, force was used under Mussolini
Corporatism: The control of a state or organization by large interest groups.
Cult of Personality: established by media and propaganda. Intense devotion to a particular
NSDAP-National Socialist Workers’ Party: the Nazi Party of Germany. Under Hitler from 33-
Aryans: (in Nazi ideology) A person of Caucasian race not of Jewish descent
Hoover Moratorium: a public statement issued by U.S. President Herbert Hoover on June 20,
1931, which he hoped would ease the coming international economic crisis, as well as provide
time for recovery. Hoover's proposition was to put a one-year moratorium (pause) on payments
of World War I and other war debt, postponing the initial payments, as well as interest. Many
were outraged by this idea. There was a roaring disapproval from France, as well as many
unenthusiastic US citizens. Despite this negative reaction, it went on to gain support from fifteen
nations by July 6
Authoritarianism: Authoritarianism is a form of social organization characterized by submission
to authority. It is opposed to individualism and democracy. ...
The Great Depression: The Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash of October,
1929 and rapidly spread worldwide. The market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high
unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for
economic growth and personal advancement
Paul von Hindenburg: Hindenburg retired from the German Army in October, 1918, but
continued to take an active interest in politics. In 1925 Hindenburg replaced Friedrich Ebert as
President of Germany. Re-elected in 1932 he did not oppose the rise of Adolf Hitler and in
January 1933, appointed him Chancellor. Paul von Hindenburg was so popular with the German
people that Hitler was unable to overthrow constitutional government until his death in 1934.
Nazism: The ideology of Adolf Hitler’s NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party),
including a Führer’s totalitarian government, racism, nationalist territorial expansion
(Lebensraum) and state control of the (war) economy
Franz von Papen: was a German nobleman, Roman Catholic monarchist politician, General
Staff officer, and diplomat, who served as Chancellor of Germany in 1932 and as Vice-
Chancellor under Adolf Hitler in 1933–1934. A member of the Catholic Centre Party until 1932, he was one of the most influential members of the group of close advisers to President Paul von
Hindenburg in the late Weimar Republic. It was largely Papen, believing that Hitler could be
controlled once he was in the government, who persuaded Hindenburg to put aside his scruples
and approve Hitler as Chancellor in a cabinet not under Nazi Party domination. However, Papen
and his allies were quickly marginalized by Hitler and he left the government after the Night of
the Long Knives, during which some of his confidants were killed by the Nazis.
Gleichschaltung: the process by which theNazi regime successively established a system
of totalitarian control and tight coordination over all aspects of society. The historian Richard J.
Evans translated the term as "forcible-coordination" in his most recent work on Nazi Germany.
Night of the long Knives: murder of important figures that were carried out by the Nazi party
Autobahn: The German autobahns are the nationally coordinated motorway system in
Germany. Hitler commissioned it
Triumph of the Will: a propaganda film made by Leni Riefenstahl. It chronicles the 1934 Nazi
Party Congress inNuremberg, which was attended by more than 700,000 Nazi supporters. The
film contains excerpts from speeches given by various Nazi leaders at the Congress, including
portions of speeches by Adolf Hitler, interspersed with footage of massed party members. Hitler
commissioned the film and served as an unofficial executive producer; his name appears in the
opening titles. The overriding theme of the film is the return of Germany as a great power, with
Hitler as the True German Leader who will bring glory to the nation. One of the best known
propaganda films ever made
Leni Riefenstahl: filmmaker who made the Triumph of the Will
Habsburg Empire: Hungarian Empire
1867 Compromise: The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of
1867 (German: Ausgleich, Hungarian: Kiegyezés) established the dual monarchy of Austria-
Linguistic Diversity in Austria-Hungary: many different cultures/languages. Made to speak
The Nationality Bill:
L’udovit Stur: was the leader of the Slovak national revival in the 19th century, the author of
the Slovak language standard eventually leading to the contemporary Slovak literary language
German Unification: The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively
integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at t