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Europe in the Contemporary World.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1002

Europe in the Contemporary World1900 to the PresentState of Europe in 1900 Political StructuresEurope is comprised of primarily monarchies although France is democratic by 1900These monarchs exert control far beyond their countries as they are also Emperors of large Empires which span the globeMonarchs are presumed to be given power directly from GodThe power of the Monarch varies based on the countries they preside overExample The Russian Tsar was the most powerful monarch within his respective state during that period in EuropeHe had absolute political control there was no constitution and yet there were approximately 100 national groups in RussiaBritain in 1900Britain was considered a world powerWas an industrialised countryHad a vast navy to exert its control over the vast empire it controlledCanada was a selfgoverning Dominion of Britain1900 the Monarch of Britain was Queen Victoria although the Parliament and the Prime Minister ran the country politicallyThe State of Ordinary People in 1900Ideas had emerged in the enlightenment and through revolutions that sovereignty should belong to the nation not the monarchPeople were beginning to believe that citizens should be involved in politics especially through votingVotingIn France all adult men could voteIn Britain most adult men could voteIn Russia many adult men could voteHowever in Britain 75 of Members of Parliament MPs were titledIn 1900 no women could voteNew Parties were beginning to emerge Example The Labour PartyIndustrial EconomiesSocieties Sept 12 2013thEuropean countries had much stronger economies at the beginning of the 20 century ththan the 18EffectsTerritories were gainedEuropean economies became the strongest in the worldnote only in the 1900s did Europe surpass India and ChinaHow this came to beIndustrialization Industrial RevolutionSecond Industrial RevolutionAgriculture based Industrybased economyeconomyno machines or only big machinessmall machinesfirst factorieson the landhigh quantity of smaller quantities productionproducedIndustrialization the process by which agricultural economies are transformed into industrial economiesBritain did this first from 17801850Showcased in the Industrial exhibition in 1851Industrial Revolution term used to stress the change in society and how revolutionary it wasSecond Industrial Revolution brought about electricity chemicals aspirin bigger factories big corporations department storesExamples Galleries Lafayette MercedesBenzThinking about industrial societiesIndustrialization happened differently in different countriesIt was a challenging experience for peoplemany people were displacedcouldnt compete against new bigger firmsresulted in protestspovertythKey 19 Century DevelopmentsThe rise of citiesurban immigration people leaving farms and moving into citiesemigration to other countriesgrowth of citiesExamples between 18001850London grew from 1 million 24 million peopleParis grew from 500000 1 million peopleEffectsA lack of city planning led to intense pockets of povertySewage issuesDisease such as CholeraMalnourishmenthigh mortality ratesExample in Paris in 1832 7000 people diedthParis in the mid19 Century Napoleons nephew was in chargeHe began remaking the citythClearing lavenue de lOpera by the late 19 century it had big boulevards for the richNew methods of transportationTrains and Railroadsmoved people across the continent at an unprecedented ratealso served as symbols of industrializationthEurope and Empire September 17Colonialismth16 Century colonialism beganexploitationcontrol over territories through settlement by the colonial powerthMid 19 Century during industrializationonly Britain maintained a vast Empire though less than beforeundisputed colonial powerother powers still had colonies just not as manyThe Age of Empire1900s 18751914 New competition for empireThe Age of Empire involved mostly Britain France Germany Italy Belgium USJapanNew Imperialism18751914Characterized byexploitationgenerally less settlementrapidly pacedlarge spacesAfrica was carved up quickly within a decadeAsianPacific control expandedCause Countries needed raw materials which were unavailable in EuropethNoteof the globes surface was distributed or redistributed as colonies and 110 of the worlds population was involvedthEurope and Empire IISeptember 19Historical Explanations for the origins of New ImperialismPolitical MotivesInternational RivalriesGermanys change was a catalyst for Imperialism Bismarck as a dominant player
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