Study Guides (238,294)
Canada (115,060)
History (123)
HIST 1002 (13)
all (9)


11 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
HIST 1002

ththFirst Reading September 9 Europe on the Threshold of the 20 Century Gilbert 334thPreliminary anecdote symbolizes a major theme in 20 century change the inability of the upper class to realize the increasing role of the urban industrial population and thus decline of the agrarian sector Overall synchronicity between industrial development and population growth among major European Powers internal strength in relation to one another was largely in a state of fluxthGermany experienced most significant demographical change in the middle of 19 century to the turn of the century the agricultural sector diminished from 70 to 35Consequently two outcomes arose from industrial shift establishment of big cities as well as the development of industry rich regions example Donetsk coal and iron mining Russian EmpireAs the nature of changes was not clearly grasped by contemporary Europeans revolt and criticism of existing had emerged both implicitly and explicitly Among significant critics remains the Church poor working conditions often led to the uninterest of rejection of former Christian valuesMany playwrights authors and artists became prominent leaders in the expression of bourgeois hypocrisy and social injustice of the era Hauptmann Ibsen Zola etcRomantic evocations of the past did in fact have an effect on the political climate nourishing the ideologies of fascism and opposing progressivismFriedrich Nietzsche believed Christian morality was frustrating the development of mans powers and suffocating human creativity Only natural drives and instincts could constitute the basis of a true ethical code Contrarily intellectuals such as HG Wells shared more of a common belief of optimism for the th20 century continuation of ideological progress better health working conditions etc Second Industrial Revolution characterized by development of electrical and chemical industries precondition for development of large citiesCreated possibility for industrialization in countries which seemed destined to agriculture due to a lack of coal and ironSIRs repercussions on foreign policy lay foundation of ray material scramble ie Scramble for Africa stiff competition leads to development of competitive international European marketRapid expansion of development unavoidably promoted leftsocialist tendencies many such as Josef Stalin suffered hostile working conditions inspiring the creation of trade unionsDespite popularity of Marxist doctrines many contradictions had do have been taken into account If the collapse of capitalism was inevitable what justification was there for forming political parties and for undertaking a political struggleSome such as Berstein suggested socialism could be achieved through evolution rather than revolution whereby the working class would gradually become larger and acquire administrative powers Revisionism movementAround the turn of the century there existed only 2 European republics Familial monarchy remained prevalent Middle classnor proletariat nor upper society Large gap institutionalized amongst the industrial entrepreneurs and the economically free ie shop owner Women still suffer social degradation extremely difficult to receive admittance into higher educationTurn of century ultimately marked by the rejection of liberalism on ethical political and economic grounds Imperialism the Highest Stage of CapitalismthSecond Reading September 16 Society Politics and Empires during prewar Gilbert 3592Great BritainOf the great powers Great Britain had advanced the furthest in democratic evolution and industrialization Nevertheless German and American markets rapid growth eventually surpassed that of Great BritainColonial agendapromotion of foreign policy great national priority ambitions of empire spanning Cape Town to Cairo Fashoda incident brink of FranceBritain warRelative economic stability from 1890s to First World War no severe economic crisis had occurred Fabian movement socialist activism promoting the principles of democratic socialism via gradualist and reformist rather than revolutionary means foundation of modern labor partyBoer War great test of English imperial integrity displayed clumsiness of British military as well as raised serious doubts about the aims of policy and the efficiency of the British political process Fall of conservatism Balfour resigns in 1905 10 years of subsequent Liberal rule helped heal the wounds instigated by the Conservatives however the overall results remained somewhat meager Significant Lloyd GeorgeNational Insurance ActStrong social activism over suffrage rights of women to be eventually established only in 1918Between 1911 and 1912 many strikes occurred largely motivated politically and economically industrialists hesitant to raise wages in order to compete with greater efficiency on the world market FranceDuring the decade before the First World War France was the most democratic of the powers on the continent Unlike the British two party system French parliament was composed of a large number of small partiesThe strength of French politics was an indication that it lagged in the industrial race nevertheless it remained a great financial power Rather than investing in industry French capital was largely focused around public loans Main political divisions ideological aristocratic monarchial Francerepublican FranceOther force which proved hostile to the republic was the Church manipulation of education policy etc Consequently France and the Vatican had broken relations until the end of the First World War Dreyfus Affair France opens the wound of AntiSemitism Jewish captain in the French army Alfred Dreyfus is court marshaled and exiled on counts of fabricated evidence The decision to exile the captain led to a divide between AntiClerical republicans and AntiSemitic monarchists As far as long term consequences it had initiated the trigger of the Zionist movement Fashoda incident ultimately caused reluctant expansionist policy Rather than continue expanding on economic grounds French minister Theophile Delcass showed greater concern over the territories of Morocco and Tunisia in order to secure military transportation from Algeria in the event of warIn order to fund this North African policy the nation was willing to compromise colonial concessions with Britain and Italy in exchange for predominant influence France established great ties with Russia
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1002

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.