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World History Review 2013.docx

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HIST 1707
Neven Leddy

World History Review 2013 • Abstract Expressionism: a postwar artistic style characterized by nonrepresentational forms and bold colours; often associated with the freedom of the Western world • Allies: the alliance of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the US and their coalition partners in WWII • Apartheid: the South African system of laws and behaviours that enforced segregation of the black from the white population, with the intention of creating a society dominated by whites; apartheid laws were repealed in 1991 • Appeasement: the strategy of preventing a war by making concessions to aggressors • Axis: the alliance of Italy, Germany, and Japan and their client states in WWII • Bolshevik: a faction of the Russian Socialist Party that advocated control of revolutionary activity by a disciplined group of the party elite instead of by the working class as a whole; renamed “Communist” by Lenin following the Russian Revolution • Bourgeoisie: originally a term meaning the urban middle class; Marx defined it as the owners of the means of production under capitalism • Business Imperialism: the domination of foreign economies without military or political rule • Capitalism: an economic system in which the means of production – machines, factories, land, and other forms of wealth – are privately owned • Cartel: a group of independent business organizations in a single industry formed to control production and prices • Central Economic Planning: a policy of gov’t direction of the economy, established during WWI and increasingly used in peacetime • Civil Disobedience: a political strategy of deliberately but peacefully breaking the law to protest oppression and obtain political change • Cold War: the rivalry between the Soviet Union and the United States that followed WWII and shaped world politics between 1945 and 1989 • Collective Security: the system of international diplomacy, especially involving the peaceful resolution of disputes, established by the League of Nations • Colonialism: the establishment of settler communities in areas ruled by foreign powers • Comintern: an international organization of workers established by the Bolsheviks to spread communism worldwide • Conservatism: a political philosophy emphasizing the continuation of traditional institutions and opposition to sudden changes in the established order • Containment: the US policy developed during the cold war to prevent the spread of communism • Contract Government: a political theory that views government as stemming from the people, who agree to surrender a measure of personal freedom in return for a gov’t that guarantees protection of citizens’ rights and property • Cosmopolitanism: the merging or acceptance of a variety of national and ethnic values and traditions • Cultural Revolution: the Chinese communist program of the 1960s and early 1970s carried out by Mao Zedong’s youthful followers to remake Chinese thought, behaviour, and everyday life • Decolonization: the process of freeing regions from imperial control and creating independent nations • Diaspora: the dispersal of a population, often resulting in large settlements in different parts of the world • European Economic Community: a consortium of European countries established in 1947 to promote free trade and economic cooperation among its members • Existentialism: a philosophy prominent after WWII developed primarily by the French thinkers, that stresses the importance of active engagement with the world in the creation of an authentic existence • Federalism: a form of gov’t in which power and administration are located in regions such as provinces and states rather than in a centralized administration • Federation: a union of equal and sovereign states rather than a thoroughly integrated nation • Five-Year Plan: one of the centralized programs for economic development instituted by Joseph Stalin in the USSR and copied by Adolf Hitler in Germany; these plans set production priorities and targets for individual industries and agriculture • Fourteen Points: a proposal by US president Woodrow Wilson for peace during WWI based on “settlement” rather than “victory” and on the self-determination of peoples • General Will: the political concept that once agreement among citizens creates a state, that state is endowed with a higher wisdom about policies with which virtuous citizens could not disagree • Glasnost: a policy introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev allowing for free speech and the circulation of accurate information in the Soviet Union • Globalization: a variety of behaviours and processes, such as trade, warfare, travel, and the spread of culture, that link the world’s peoples. The economic, cultural, political, and social interactions and integration of the world’s peoples. • Great Depression: the economic crisis of the 1930s that began in agricultural regions through a severe drop in commodity prices in the 1920s and then, with the US stock market crash of 1929, spread to industrial countries • Great Leap Forward: the Chinese Communist program of the mid-1950s designed to push the country ahead of all others in industrial and other production • Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere: a region of Asian states to be dominated by Japan, and in theory, to benefit from Japan’s superior civilization • Guerrilla Warfare: unconventional combat, often undertaken by those who are not members of official armies • Holocaust: the genocidal murder of some 6 million Jews by the Germans during WWII in an attempt to exterminate European Jewry • Industrial Revolution: a change in the production of goods that substituted mechanical power for human energy, beginning around 1750 in Britain and western Europe; it vastly increased the world’s productivity • Interchangeability of parts: a late 18 C technological breakthrough in which machine and imp
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