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Carleton University
HIST 1707

Class 1Scientific Revolution Enlightenment and Revolution in the Atlantic WorldScientific RevolutionScholasticism everything had to be studied through unmutable laws given by GodMade it hard to see things outside the views of religionIslam in the Muslim world did not intervene in scientific researchIn Europe scholars were pursuing knowledge as a means of salvationIn the 16th century a push for practical was made despite religionFaithRationalityUniversities were under the control of the ChurchEventually became independentChallenged the theological knowledge of scholarsRecovered ancient Greek works such as AristotleGained access through the CrusadesDespite Greek works Europeans still used Muslim Scholars knowledgeCopernicusput the Sun at the center of the universeSolved many anomaliesViolated the Christian canonWorks came out in 1543 upon his death bedGalileo Galilee Tested Aristotles ideasSaw the need for the separation of science and religionUnder house arrest by the Roman InquisitionMany scholars were mistreated and often killed by the InquisitionIsaac Newton devised the concept of universal gravitationUltimate example of the power of the human mindCompletely avoided supernaturalismConducted experiments to gain evidenceEnlightenmentPhilosophes People committed to questioning and skepticismScientist showed that nature could be understood and controlledEverything from politics to religion were open to criticismVoltaire Criticized religion as a conceptWrote plays essays and multiple lettersThese philosophes wanted to use this knowledge to improve societyHuge radical since religion attributed that God chose already what we were to doJohn Locke We all enter the world as blank slatesCharacters are form through our experiences nurturenatureHuman nature is changeable and can be improvedPeople can be improved through LIBERTYNotably political libertyBegan questioning the authority of the monarchsMet in social settings with people and argued how to improve societyA popular place was the coffee houseFirst coffee house opened in ViennaThousands opened up in Europe and became very popularArgued about science vs religionCoffee houses were at the epicenter of enlightenment discussion such as libertyIronic since coffee is made through slave labour in the coloniesJohannes Gutenburg 13981468 Invented the press machineChina was unable to invent the pressMovable type had been invented in KoreaRemained under control of government and lack of paperIn Europe conditions much more favourableBy 1500s already 1000 printing machines were madeMass communication was finally available due to low cost of reproductionEmergence of print cultureMade more feasible by ProtestantismStressed literacyChanged the whole intellectual climate and ended the Catholic monopolyKnowledge had to be usefulThought God gave us the Earth so we can exploit itMonarchs could no longer rule in complete secrecyThe printing press chipped away at political powerRemained the main means of mass communication until the digital ageLower classes still excluded from the EnlightenmentWomen were also excluded Concerned with menWomen were still important to the EnlightenmentThey fostered the men of the EnlightenmentMadame de Pompadour 17211764 Mistress of the French KingMade sure censorship did not occurBlocked the printing of bocks that attacked the EnlightenmentNotwithstanding views of women remained rather traditionalMary Wollstonecraft 175997 A vindication of the Rights of WomanArgued that women were being enslavedWomen also could help the development of the worldThe Enlightenment excluded the rest of the worldBelieved that they were superior to other ethnicitiesUsed this thought to legitimatize the imperial domination of the worldRevolutionsSeven Years War 17561763Conflict between Great Britain Portugal Prussia vs Spain France Austria and RussiaTreaty of Paris Great Britain as winnerExtremely costly war doubled Britains national debtIncrease of taxesSparked social unrest
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