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HIST 2402
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GEO4 exams and a cumulative final half new half from beforeDo readings before because he uses jargon you wont understandExams based on lectures not textbook so must take notesWewrite notesWhat are earth systemsEarthquakessize of box bigger the bigger the shakes color shows time lengthEarthquake is rupture of roclWhy then and thereIn chili71 caused by tsunami and no one was effectedBut 20ish earthquakes in a weekWhat is the pattern that we see in these earth systens90 earthquake by Honshuit damaged a nuclear reactorEarthquakes are on edges of tectonic platesThe pattern of earthquakes outlines the shape of tectonic platesSeimic hazard map encompases ifwhen earthquake and also climate bedrock etcIn middle east around himalyans is very active Not stable stuff to build houses onPacific coast of north America activeWe are in western quebec seismic zone Ottawa built on clay type soil so stuff not stable and not near plate margin we are in the middle but we still have earthquakesNew Madrid zone is also in the middle of continent type of rocksoilhard to have buildings survive major earthquakesSo now we need California seimic standards to build buildings but only started doing this 5 years ago2 relatively big earthquakes Ottawa and Yellowstone national park in Wyoming Redder colors are more violent shaking due to built on weak soil so things shook for a whileHistorically in Ottawa theres a bit of a pattern a line through 2 pictures are 1 year and 5 year so hypothesized that we are sitting on fault linezone because there is a build up of strain on the platecompression and strain release also a lot of earthquakes in Scandinavia related to iso reboundtook ice off quickly and rebounding People think ours is accomadating uplift from being under a km of ice from ice age that meltedIn Yellowstone national park with hot springs and crap Yellowstone is a super volcano last eruption was 60 000 years ago We are now having clusters of earthquakes due to building stress and strain Hot springs due to molten material nearby the surfacePeople predicting that geosoon it might erupt again soonNew Madrid in central NA in arkensaw ish placepotential biological link with earthquake activity Lots of seismic activity like QC Jan 2011 a cluster of earthquake 2000 birds that fell from the sky and potentially unrelated thousands of fish dying from freshwater lakes People suggesting that this is effecting biota in the area People did a study that a bunch of toad started moving and shortly after there was an earthquakeso it is possible that animals can feel earthquakes before we can Cryosphereice caps and shitThis class is going to focus on physical geology and recent historical geologybridge analogy to geologyMineralogyhow minerals are composed and what makes them up chemistr of itGeodynamicshow do tectonic plates come together how do they make aplanet etcEarth systemscryospherelithosphere etc interactionsGeology jumps with large spatial scalesControlled experiments are hard so observations are more importantMost people think during their own lifetime scalesHere we deal with billions of yearsearthquake that happened now and earthquake that happened a billion years aboutPrinciple of uniformitarianism there are volcanoes and earthquakes now and were billions or years ago Now oceans maybe not super super long agoLast time Ottawa under km of ice 15 000 years agoGeology is also different because evidence is typically fragmented or incomplete We dont have a nice set of rocks from everywhere from every age so must distinguish noise to signal dataNature of scientific inquiryPattern recognition recreate what rockssoilwater is saying to piece together what happened through time Do this throughInductivebaconian dont know whats going onfirst time went to moon must go there to figure it out DeductiveDarwinian follow experiment you think you know what will happen Later stages of researchHypothesis must be testable model parsimonious minimal amount of assumptionsHypothesis matures into a theory Once everyone agrees is a law and irrefutable with our current technologyDeductive method extinctions of dinosaurs Have more than one hypothesis test them all reject or fail to reject hypothesisDinosaurs gone 65 million years ago end of crutaceous This wasnt the only extinction period in earth history The biggest one is the end of permean dont know why most stuff died New media just picks on dinosaur though Many plankton extinct with dinosaur widespread and fast death Happened in 20 000 years This is fast Shown in soil record Mamillion yrs Gabillion yearsIridum rock core Thousands on km processed for iridum There is a peakspike at 3000 parts per thousand Iridum if found in primordial lavals old rock 3 4 ga or really deep Also in cosmic dust or meteorites So there is either a meteor impact or vocalnic explsionS volcanoes release a lot of sulfur because of eruptions Use S meters to see if change in conc in case of eruption Also peak at 65 Ma Sources show down to meteor or volcanoCarbonlook at rock core carbon content of clay stones Shows 65 Ma It comes through forest fires and whatnot Probably related to wildfires Source of wildfires can be volcanoes or meteorPotential meteor or global scale volcano eruptionsA testable onelook at crater that would have been caused by meteorwould get large dust cloud making fireball and nuclear winter and instant deathVs synchronous numerous and lick lava flows is there enough lava to make all that iridium and stuff Map of end crutaceous site where we can go look 30 spots and test about extinctionrock of right age Some are in ocean and must drill down into ocean crust In central Americathe biggest smoking gun we think is redderVolcanic explosions many dated between 6070 Ma ago Hard to quantify due to erosion must expratolate a lot In india there are fracturesfissures in crust that ooze lava no volcanoes
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