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HIST 2510
Neil Thorton

Key Terms: Who, What, Where, Why & Significance 1. French Revolution: Started July 14, 1789 French Nobility had been weakened under Louis 14, were unhappy.  Middle classes not happy with continued lack of political voice  Peasants continue to suffer Crop failure just before revolution (food scarce) Finances for Crown tight…nothing is producing revenue for state  Spent a lot of money on warfare against Britain New Tax by Jacques Necker (who is then dismissed July 12) Stormed Bastille July 14 rd Estates General and 3 estate. March to Versailles Oct 1789  Women demonstrating in royal court...royal family moved Paris Reign of Terror 1793 Significance:  France was a major power at the time, created nervousness in other powers  Absolutist State  Unleashes years of war eg. Napoleonic wars  Rearranges map of Europe 2. Napoleon Bonaparte Born and educated in Corsica, France and spoke Italian Has several early military successes Attempt to take Cyro, Egypt from Britain a failure  Abandons troops after fleet is destroyed on Nile River  Takes place in Coo over Directory upon return 1806 self-declared Emperor  Gov’t tightly centralized  Shut down many public things like newpapers  Not supportive of feminism Civil Code  Codifies laws  Incorporates many revolutionary advances such as equality before the law, right to choose profession/religion, protect property rights…  BUT also restores slavery to colonies, gives father authority over wife and children, etc… 1806 continental Blockade  Tries to smother Britain ▪ Austria-Hungary supports Britain now  Gains Russian support (Czar Alex I) Peninsula War was his ultimate defeat Significance:  Changed the way wars were done  Holy Roman Empire dismantled 3. Congress of Vienna conference of ambassadors of European states in Vienna 1814-1815 it formed the outline of European international politics until the outbreak of WWI chaired by Klemens Metternich  Austrian Statesman  Former Foreign Minister of Holy Roman Empire An attempt to restore stability in Europe Significance:  Most historians agreed that it was responsible for longest lasting peace  Gets rid of Napoleon’s confederation of the Rhine  Groups German states into the German Confederation  Redrew European map again, refining states such as France, Netherlands etc 4. New Sense of Nationalism Late 1700-early 1800 Kant  One of first philosophers to address problem of doubt and certainty  Scientific vs metaphysical knowledge  Wanted 100% truth in empirical statements/ room for doubt  Categorical Imperative: every act we take is moral, if it is possible for it to become a general rule.. Self-knowledge and self-realisation, must look inside ourselves, discover what is moral and thus right Fitche  We all create a private reality and private world that we carry around  Universal consciousness/ego is what creates the reality of the world  Says the state can act in a way that all the Germans have to act, the parts must work under the whole to unveil everyone’s destinies Herder  Cosmopolitan thinker ▪ Bridges gao between romanticism and classicism  It is differences between people that are fruitful, cultural differences lead to growth, exploration and creativity…passion guides our behaviour  Thought the world was in a constant state of change and flux, not always getting better but always changing  Language defines us Significance:  Builds on patriotism, creates a deeper German Nationalism  Offered sense of place and security through tough times  Can become poisonous ▪ Racial against those from other countries ▪ Hostility against Jews living within nations 5. Prussia & Austria Conflict 1866 war with Austria, unresolved constitution in Prussia Bismarck secretly aligned with Russia and France if a war broke out within 3 months German’s aren’t keen on Prussian dominance Bismarck suggests reforms in Germany 1866  All man suffrage ▪ Though Bismarck was conservative, he thought that he had enough support with conservative population to do this…he was wrong June 9 1866, Prussian army invades Holstein July 3, Prussians beat Austria which ends the war  Took skill of Prussian leadership  Prussia also using newer gun tech. ▪ After this King Will and Army want to essentially steamroll Austria but Bismarck convinces them it is not wise Significance:  Formation of the North German Confederation, 1867  Bismarck considered widely praised now  New constitution conflict (new foreign affairs bill passed)  Austria is kicked out the German Confederation 6. Franco-Prussian War 19 July 1870-May 10 1871 France foreign policy not doing well (Napoleon III) A Coo removed Spanish queen Isabella, 1868  Looking for new king and Prince Leopold (of Prussia) is a candidate…French do not like this ▪ July 9, France interviews Will I and wanted him to promise that Leo will not take throne. July 19 1870, France declares war  Not many battles occurred and Napoleon is captured (which should end war)  Bismarck negotiates with French Ambassador ▪ Wants Alsace-Lorraine  French refuse but soon realize that their army are not as resilient as they though previously, also were surprised that no other superpowers came to help them Feb 26, 1871 Peace accord signed  Hurts French A LOT ▪ Germany takes Alsace and part of Lorraine ▪ 500 000million Francs ▪ Germany could enter Paris whenever they wa
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