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HIST 3109
Roderick Phillips

Test 1 Notes Beer vs. Wine, Emergence of Types of Alcohol, the Production and Trades, Technology… • Initially, beer more popular than wine, so you can drink it throughout the day (has lower alcohol content), you can store grain and make beer throughout the year (whereas wine is harvested once and has to be made right away), grain grows in more places than grapes (can make beer anywhere) • Wine was less common, only harvested once, made in particular places, therefore more expensive and drank by the elites—that’s how you get the division. Although the elites drank beer too, right up until the Greeks. • In Middle Ages in Europe, beer consumed more widely because of these reasons (grain available year-round, can store it, can grow it in many kinds of climactic conditions). But beer had a short shelf-live, was made more locally and couldn’t be transported. Wine became part of international commerce, long-distance shipping. So people write more about wine. • Ancient Egypt (3000BC) o There was distinction between wine and beer, but there are no negative feelings about beer. Yes, wine was scarce, but the elites also drank beer and weren’t about to criticize it or think of it as ignoble. They knew they’d drink more beer than they would wine. o Beer is a smart drink in the ancient world. Very nutritious. Not like modern beer that’s just full of carbs. The brewing process raised the caloric value of the grain it was made of (more than the bread made of that grain). o It was very rich in carbs, vitamins, proteins. Also flavoursome—it was flavoured beer. We have honey beers, strawberry beers today, but that’s a modern thing. Back in ancient times it was normal to flavor beer with juniper, coriander, sometimes honey. o Beer was the universal beverage in cultures from Mesopotamia to Egypt.  Beer—maybe 3-4%  Wine—maybe 8-9%  So when people drink 2-3 litres of beer a day, that’s all day long and it’s fairly low in alcohol. Didn’t interfere with work and people getting on with their lives o Slaves drank all the time and they still built the pyramids. There were no guidelines about not drinking before handling machinery. o Kings kept wine cellars (Mesopotamia to Egypt), wine drank for ceremonies, used for libations (poured on the ground while praying). Wine was the bevereage of choice for religious ceremonies. o Also buried with the kinds to last them into the afterlife. In their tombs. Also lots of people drank wine at funerals for kings. o **How they made it: vines grow up trees (mixed agriculture) that they bend down and pick grapes off of, tread on grapes, ferment, pour into clay jars lined with resin with a hole to let the carbon dioxide escape, stacked in storage, then shipped. • Ancient Greeks o **How they made it: bush vines (mixed agriculture), picked the grapes and tread on them, poured them into amphorae (different types of jars) that ranged in size, stacked them and shipped them. o The first to be snobby about wine, saying it was for the civilized and beer was for barbarians. o Beer was also made on Crete, but later records show them pretending as though beer never existed. They seemt o put it out of their minds. o The Cretans transferred wine knowledge to Greece. At this point (2000BC), the Greeks did not drink beer but they did drink mead. The wine was effectively the first mass-produced alcoholic beverage that the Greeks received. o When viticulture came to Greece, came to region where the vines grow easily. First region where vineyards could be produced in many parts of the culture. o Mesopotamia: vineyards were int eh hills, cooler areas. The plains were too hot. o Egypt: climate not appropriate for viticulture except fro certain oases and the Nile delta (relatively cool, offshore breezes from Mediterranean) o But Greece: vines could be grown everywhere. On the mainland, planted close to big cities (Athens, Sparta), many of Greek island (Santorini, Pilos, Lesbos, Thaspos, Samos) were hospitable to viticulture. Still today, many of these islands important for production of wine. o Some islands easier to grow grapes than others. But the drive to grow grapes was so strong that they went to such an extent to make it work in these more difficult islands.  Island of Samos- Grown amongst other vegetation. A lot of olive trees. The vines grow on terraces with brick walls. Grown up to 1000m above sea level, down to sea leve.  Panta Larea—the soil is actually sand. It’s very windy—small, low-lying island. They have to put up windbreaks made of cane to protect the vines. Had to bury the vines so that when they’re young, they’re not exposed to wind. o Vines took to the Greek mainland and islands—by 500-400BC, major wine industry in Greece. First major wine industry. It not only served the greek market but became important centre of wine trade. o Three major commodities in Mediterranean commerce:  Wine  Olive oil  Grain o One site off the coat of France had 10,000 amphorae. Some rivers in France have traces of tens of thousands of these things. They weren’t re-used…thy were shipped and then thrown out. No recycling of these things. o Give a sense of the scale of the wine trade at this time. 10,000 amphorae=400,000 bottles of wine! Large commerce in wine at this time. o Greeks were serious wine snobs—had symposia, judged other cultures for being beer-drinkers, said beer makes men effeminate, etc.  People at this time didn’t understand that the active ingredient in both wine and beer was alcohol • Wine was one commodity, beer was another, mead was another, etc. • There was no sense that the effects of drinking beer, wine, and distilled spirits was the same. th th • Not until th elate 18 /19 centuries  Aristotle classified wine with opium as a good thing, beer was in a separate category. He thought that anyone who drank wine to the point of intoxication fell face-first because wine made you heavy-headed. In contrast, a man intoxicated by beer fell backwards because beer was stupefying. Clear distinction etween wine and beer. • Ancient Romans o Followed the Greeks in saying that wine was for the civilized, superior. The Greeks transferred the prejudicse along with the technology o Greeks extended viticulture to southern Italy. Northern Italy shortcircuited the Greeks and got it from elsewhere in eastern Mediterranean. But very shortly, Greece and Rome became major wine-consuming cultures. Other places (Mesopotamia, Egypt) were beer-consuming cultures and wine was just for the elites. Here, wine was consumed everywhere. o The Romans extended viticulture throughout Europe, through trade and by encouraging the planting of vines around Europe st nd o By 1 /2 century of Christian era, we find that many great wine regions were planted:  South of France  Bordeaux  Burgundy  Champagne  Rhine valley in Germany  Rhone valley in France o Many regions that have become very famous were planted by the Romans or Christians who picked up where the Romans left off o Wine: major part of Roman diet • Early Middle Ages (around 500 AD) o emphasis on alcohol, particularly on wine, by the Church. o As Christianity spread through Europe, missionaries established churches, followings amongst Europeans—took wine with them o We can credit the Romans for spreading viticulture throughout Europe by 100AD, within 2-4 centuries of beginning of Christian era, Christian missionaries spread viticulture even more densely. There were vineyards in places like Spain, France, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Poland, as well as the areas where you’d expect vineyards to be (Italy and Greece). o Monasteries became important producers of alcohol from beginning of Christian era. Wine, but also important producers of beer. o Picture of monks bringing wine I nbaskets, other monks treading the wine. Many pictures of wine production in manuscripts and books. Reinforces the notion that the Church was very involved in wine production, more than beer production. o Importance of wine to Christianity has led some historians to suggest that drinking wine became symbol of conversion to Christianity. Many of the regions the missionaries penetrated were beer-drinkers. Conversion of Chirstianity meant that you stop drinking beer and move on to drinking wine. o That doesn’ts eem to be true. Monasteries made beer as well, didn’t look down at it or regard it as un-Christian. They privileged wine for symbolic or ritual purposes, but didn’t see beer as pagan.** o There was no beer trade. There could be wine trade because it lasted longer and could be transported great distances. Possible to move it in barrels and establish wine trade. Beer couldn’t last long, wasn’t worth transporting because people could make it anywhere. o Most people continued to drink beer o Especially Northern Europe o Didn’t drink wine all that much—cost of importing it o **division between northern (beer-drinking, later spirits-drinking region) and southern (wine-drinking, could produce more wine, people coul dmake their own or purchase/barter from neighbours) o Some wine consumption among the elites • High Middle Ages—1000AD o **”Climate Since the Year 1000”—things begant o warm up at year 1000.  Grdual increase in warmth over the year. Crops could be grown for the first time in areas that had been too cold.  **climate change, not global warming  Grain grown even more widely, grapes could also be grown in new regions—in England, northern Europe o At the same time as this climate change na dpotential increase in wine/beer production, increase in population  Grew from about 1,000 up to about 1,350 until the Black Death. That cut the population by about 1/3, then it grew from about 1520 upt o 1600. o This perio dis important. From about 1000 to 1350—steady increase in population, urbanization.  Becaue of climate change, could grow grapes closer to these new urban centres  **Urban centers:not only concentratiosn of population, but new kinds of people. You have new middle class, entrepreneurial class, traders and merchants.  **1000: resurgence of commerce, trade.  Emergence of new urban culture, quite different from rural culture. Consumers of commodities, particularly wine. New cities: important markets for wine.  Centres of the wine trade, places for wine to be shipped to. o 1000-1350 important also because we see alcohol industry beginning to emerge  Production from small-scale to large scale  Development of long-distrance trade in wine (soon afterwards, beer) o Emergence of alcohol industry for the first time in year 1000. Before, vineyards and wine production tended to be dispersed and quite small. Some monasteries were very mportant for wine production (one produced 2 million litres of wine per year), but most wine production was small. Beer production tended to be domestic, or by monasteries. Monasteries: key to wine production in this period. o Church: important in the production of alcohol o Emergence of lay production in this period—beginnings of alcohol production to the commercial scale, trade and commerce in alcohol. o Wine takes off as an object of trade within Europe o Beer began to be subject of trade for the first time o New cities and old cities got larger, the urban environment worked against domestric production o People who lived in cities were workers in cramped conditions, didn’t have room for barrels and vats to make beer/wine. People in cities were no longer producers but consumers of food and drink. Consumer culture. o Someone had to produce what they consumed—growth of retail (butchers, bakers, beer merchants, wine merchants, taverns) o Commercialization of alcohol production o Growth of the beer trade—NEW o Beer hadn’t been shipped before because it didn’t last that long o Beer was consumed locally before o But now with hops (better preservative), it could be shipped o More stable in the beers made with hops o Northern Germany: key to early beer trade (particularly city of Hamburg)—had an advantage because transportation by water was best way to get anything around in Middle Ages, whtehr by river, canal, or sea. Efficient, cheaper, safer way. o Wine sent to th ebiship of Coventry—could calculate how much it cost to ship. By water: 0.4 pence per barrel mile. Over land: 2.5 pence per barrel mile. o That area of production (Hamburg) had advantage when exporting beer. Hamburg became a key for the production of beer. Hamburg became a BRAND —people began to buy Hamburg beer—in Scandinavia, Netherlands, etc. o By 1360s, Hamburg was shipping about 5 million liters of beer a year—1/5 of production of the country. o Also production and trade of wine o To provide urban markets o Good deal of land reclamation o Forests cleared, marshes were drained to make land that wa suitable for viticulture o Even in England. Domesday book of 1086 listed 42 vineyards. Two centuries later, 1300 vineyards. Became an iomportant source of wine in this period—but not sufficient to provide the English population (one of the ost important wine markets in Europe) o English wine market was responsible for creating many wines.  Created Bordeaux wine  Medieval period: long-distance wine trade routes. Bordeaux shipped wine into London (and other parts of England and Scotland, also into low countries like Bruges, into the Baltic sea, Russia and Scandinavian era)  It became known as Claret in England. Really popular.  Beaujolais wine—gimmick called it Beaujolais nouveau to sell it to people. Comes out on the third Thursday of November, fly it all around the world. Tastes like bananas and bubble gum—very young. But it was very popular.  Just like this—it was very new, people loved it.  **it was the markets of northern Europe that created Bordeaux. o Area just east of Bordeaux created dark wines, very dry, very tannic. They were first popular on English market, the people of Bordeaux begant o make their own wines to stop these people. o Bordeaux created in 1300s, began to ship tesn of millions of litres out of Bordeaux into northern Europe. o Also a route from Italy tohrough Mediterranean into northern Europe o Others from eastern Mediterranean, through Lebanon and Cyprus o Other wine routes up into Poland and Russia o Even though there was growth of commercial production, monastic production continued to be important—particularly for wine o One of the most important orders: Cistercian Order—founded in 14 century. Something like 400 houses within 50 years. One of the things they did best was make wine. They came from Burgundy and learned to make wine. o They had privileges that freed them from paying taxes. Also excused from paying taxes for shipping their wine. Became major producers. o One of their abbeys by the Rhine in Germany had the biggest vineyard in Europe —700 hectares of vine. MASSIVE vineyard. • 16 -17 centuries o Up to this point: fermented alcohols (ale, beer, wine—we also mentioned there are other kinds of wine, fruit wines like apple wine, pomegranate wine, date wine, strawberry wine. Most of them not very palatable, but there’s a lot of it around.) o We’re going to move to distilled beverages o Distillation: start off with fermented beverage, distill it so that you remove the water and leave the alcohol. This is done by heating. o Distillate of wine: heat the wine. o Wine: water and alcohol (anything from 2% to 18%)—remove the water and leave the alcohol o When you heat wine, the first thing to vaporize is the alcohol. It has a lower boiling point than water (about 78 degrees…water boils at 100 degrees) o Alcohol boils first, vaporizes. You catch the vapour in a catching system, it cools down and liquefies, runs down a tube.  You can do an additional process with that left over wine—it’s called RECTIFICATION.  You can rectify three or four times to get alcohol even more distilled, up to 60%.  The gins are typically about 40%. o **This process was devised somewhere ein the Middle East, reached Europe in 11 and 12 centuries. o Some distilling was taking place around 1300. We know it was being used for medicinal purposes. But we don’t know when it was first introduced or first devised as a technique. o We know around 3 or 4 century, scientists in Arabia had learned process of distillation for all kinds of other substances, not alcohol (boiling, getting the vapour, distilled liquid). o Some of the first practicioners of distillation were alchemists—they’d try to turn base metal sinto gold. They couldn’t do that but they turned base liquid into something more valuable because it had high alcohol content. o **FIRST DISTILLED BEVERAGES MADE FROM WINE—BRANDY. Association with health because of the association with wine. o Later, discovered that you can distill beer:  HUGE boost to distilling industry because grain was much more readily available than grapes, beer more available than wine.  Depending on the part of Europe you lived in, you might prefer brandy in grape-growing area, or you’d prefer grain-based distilled spirit (gin, vodka).  Northern part of Europe: grain-growing—tended to rally to beverages like whisky, vodka, and gin (grain-based)  One of the reasons for its popularity in Northern Europe: it was colder up there and these spirits gave feeling of warmth (unlike wine or beer), even when consumed at room temperature. Godo for cool clilmates.  Also, whole parts of Europe (Northern Europe, Scandinavia, Russia) could locally make beverages that have more alcohol than beer—and because you could make it locally from the grain, you could have it cheaper (doesn’t have to be shipped like wine, more alcoholic than beer, and it cheaper). o Dutch Involved not only in shipping alcohol but also in development of key regions for alcohol: Charente (Atlantic coast of France, a little up north from Bordeaux)—thanks to the Dutch, this region with La Rochelle as one of its big ports became major centre for brandy production—called aqua vitae (water of life)  Charente had big supply of two things (important for distilling): wine and wood.  This wine was inferior to Bordeaux wine, people didn’t want to buy it from Charente. So they distilled it (which is great, you don’t need great wine for distilling)  The forests were substantial, it meant they had allt eh wood they needed for burning in the distilleries  Successful brandy producer  **Also developed a core area in Charente called “Cognac”. It’s superior brandy. This is an Appalachian that means the brandy made there can be called “cognac”. Has a quality and prestige that’s superior. • When you distill at the beginning and end, you have lots of impurities • If you get rid of those (throw them away), are left with pure stuff in the middle. It’s more pure alcohol with fewer toxins, but that means you’re spending a lot to make less of it. o **Also produced their own distilled spirit called GIN. Abbreviated form of “Geneva” or “Genievre”—alcohol that’s flavoured with juniper berries. o The Dutch were key in fostering two of these distilled spirits: GIN and BRANDY, also specialty in shipping wine.  17 century: movement of brandy production not only from Charente but also down to south-west coast of France—major shipping port for French brand yinto the Mediterranean. o Distilled alcohols began to produce in themselves a new range of drinks: LIQUEURS o Liqueurs: alcohol that has herbs or other flavourings added to it o Jagermeister is a liqueur. o A whole lot came out in 1600s/1700s from monasteries:  Benedictine (from Benedictine monks)—with herbs and flavourings  Chartreuse (from Carthusian monks)  **monasteries/religious orders got into business of making new alcohols as well  By 1600s, we have a whole sweep of alcohols that we have now. There are even cocktails, mixing various alcohols with juices. • Rum became mixed with lime juice for purpsoes of long-distance travelling/sailors—lime juice prevents against scurvy (ascorbic acid). You have lime juice, rum, sugar, water. Prevents also against dehydration. The rum added flavor but also a preservative. • That was a kind of cocktail. o RUM o 16 century development, initially in Barbados (west Indies), made from sugar o Initially from the cane itself, but later from molasses (a byproduct, so it wouldn’t threaten sugar production) o Sugar was important resource—began in Asia, then got to Europe and planted in early 1400s in Madeira, transported to Barbados and southern America. Became important part of European diet as a sweetner. New flavours of tea, coffee, and chocolate all benefitted from sugar—sugar became very important. Later used in food preparation. o It’s not a preservative, but we see a shif tin the European preference for tastes towards sweeter things. o Rum: a byproduct of the emergence of sugar as part of European diet o Important because it was made on other side of the Atlantic—ships could load up on alcohol from both sides—you could supply the crew with brandy (as a preservative for the water), deplete the supply and take rum from the other side o Rum: preferred alcohol of sailors. o 1655: British navy begant o allot sailors a serving of rum every day (half a pint)— later diluted with water and then sweetened with sugar—turned itno a cocktail. o Other navies began to give their sailors rum. o Identifeid as a seaman’s drink. o Ports also strated to supply it. o But rum never became that popular in Europe: they had beer, whisky, wine, gin, brandy. But it became popular in US—became he distilled alcohol fo choice in colonial times. o One of the distinguishing features of the New World. Old world: predominantly beer and wine with some distilled psirits. New World: preferred rum, later whiskey, also beer, much less wine (couldn’t really be produced there).\ o GIN o One of the inventions of the Dutch o One of the interesting episoes in history of alcohol: the Gin Craze in England— 1720s-1750s o Gin was known in England, became known in much of Eruope because of WAR. Soldiers form England went ot the Continent, drank gin and other alcohols, brought back a taste for them (a demand for them)—provided a moving market for alcohol th o Gin known in England before 18 century o Particularly during 30 Years War (1640=1648)—many of the viticulural areas of Europe were destroyed or neglected (Alsace) o Beer and wine were basic items in military rations, but spirits becoming mro eiomportant for military purposes (and naval). Spirits took less volume—could bring more alcohol in the form of spirits than anything else. More economical and efficient way of bringing alcohol. Could be diluted on the spot with water, would have the effect of clearning out the water and providing hydration and alchol. o **In England in 1688, there was a revolution—the Glorious Revolution. Kicked out Charles and replaced him with William of Orange (from the Netherlands— Dutch are producers of gin)—when he became king of England in 1688, relations with France broke down (Louis XIV was supporter of Church of Rome; William was a Protestant)—also breakdown of trade relations o Availability of French brandy went down because of the breakdown of trade relations o **Origins of gin being Dutch, growing popularity of gin in England • 17 -18 centuries: Gin in Engalnd o Early on, gin was deregulated and the local production of it spread everywhere, tons of retailers (didn’t need a licence) o We don’t know about the character/quality. Most made from corn, flavoured with juniper berries, additives like coriander, sulfuric acid, oil of turpentine. A lot was sweetened with sugar—important, contributed to its appeal to women. o European tastes tending towards more sweet direction—more an dmore sugar/honey being used in recipes of this time. • 16 century Europe o For those who drank it, it became part of daily diet—mainly beer in north, wine in south. Wine in the north was considered to be elite drink (had to be imported from southwhere it grew)—differene in the cultural value of beer and wine. Even in the south, probable that beer was minority beverage because wine was produed very easily there. o Case studies that give us a few insights into consumption  Diaries sometimes recorded what people ate/drank • One prince wrote that a printer in London in early 1700s drank 6 pints of ale per day • Fishers used to take about 240 liters of wine/cider per person for the duration of the trip…  **Venice, 1600s—in the Venice Arsenal • This was the shipyards of Venice • Reputable republic with a massive navy and shipyard (to maintain the ships)—about 2,000 workers in the shipywards • They expected to drink wine on daily basis • For hydration and nourishment • Authorities in the arsenal supplying considerable amounts of wine to the workers. They eventually created a FOUNTAIN OF WINE! Flowed from the tubes around, the wokers would fill up buckets with wine from the fountains. • Was said to be more hygienic than dipping form a trough of wine (they put their hands in, etc.)—this was a way of providing the workers with alcohol on safe basis. • Got it as regular ration during the day, also extra rations after finishing building a ship (about 2 liters per worker), also the managers/administrators got bonuses in the form of wine (barrels) • Interesting: the workers had very high status becase they were employed in building ships ofr Venetian navy—had high expectations for the quality of wine. Insisted on being paid in good wine. Adminsitrators would go to south Italy to get better wine, more substantial, more alcohol, better flavor. • Wine onsumption went up considerably—some concern about the amount of budget of arsenal being spent on wine. It was the second • most expensive item in the budget, next to the timber for the ships. Everything else (Canvas, ropes, tar) required less of budget. The Amount of wine being consumed was increasing. • Mid-1500s, consumption was 2.5 liters per day. • By early 1600s, 3.2 liters. • Late 1630s, 5 liters. • **ESSENTIAL PART OF THE WORKERS’ DIET. • . IN this period, it was considered to be essential—intrinsic part of diet for hydration/nourishment/health. o But when we’re talking about alcohol by early modern period, we should think of it as Eruopean: o In much of world wehre alcohol came from, there was prohibition (under Islam) o Those areas that first produced alcohol were no logner permitted to produce/consume it o Europe was major producer and consumer—alcohol was first entrenched as part of diet on daily basis. It was them who first spread it to other parts of the world o Also, certain patterns of consumption/attitudes that were intrinsically European— these were transferred as well. o Transfer of alcohol knowledge/patterns of consumption/attitudes to indigenous peoples in non-Europena world o Contact with indigenous peoples o Settlements o Conquest o Eventully, transfer of alcohol cultures o Partly due to demographics  **expansion took place largely by adult males (15 years and over)—men drank more than women.  Expansion of Europe by alcohol-drinking population  First contact of indigenous people would have been by heavy-drinking demographic from Europe  Important for construction of alcohol cultures within settled populations, also the transfer of alcohol cultures to native populations o Europeans encountered pouplations that also had alcohol—almost all regions had some fermented alcohol o Often in very small quantities, for medicinal/ceremonial/religious purposes (not daily consumption), but various kinds nonetheless o All fermented (non distilled) o Bottom of Africa (sub-Saharan)—drinks made from fermented cereals (kinds of beer)—honey fermented (mead), fruit fermented (Fruit wines), sap from palm trees (palm wine), milk fermented. o For ceremonies, not regular consumption—not much was made. Athough some regions of eastern Africa made more beer. o When first Protuguese emissary arrive din the Congo area of Africa in 1491, the chief/king gave him a drink of palm wine- -the Portuguese gave Portuguese wine. o Use of alcohol in these areas: people used it in much the same way as Europeans (ceremonial, hospitality), but not for hydration/as part of the diet  Caribbean • made from manioc plant—grated and turned into a flour, baked, then chewed and spat • enzymes in your saliva turn the starch into sugar. Spit into a bowl and it could turn into a fermtend drink • Very laborious method of production, doesn’t give a whole lot of alcohol, but it makes some • For ceremonial purposes only  Other parts of central/south america: • Alcohol made from fermented honey and tree bark  Andean regions (high regions): • Beer made from maize  A whole suite of beverages made in those areas, where Europeans brought their own beverages o Spanish conquest of central/south America, beginning early 1500s: o Invaded Mexico, came across indigenous population that drank PULQUE (made from agave plant)—like tequila, but it’s made form a different variety of agave plant o Made from the sap of the plant o One agaveplant could produce liters of sap per day—over lifetime, 1,000 or more liters. A plantation could produce a lot of alcohol o The sap was fermented, produced milky liquid with around 5% alcohol (like a beer). Rich in vitamins, reputed to be healthy. Only shortcoming: it had a short shelf life (only lasted one/two days), had to be made on regular basis. When it went off, smelled like a dead dog and was not attractive. o 1500s: Spanish wine industry took off—densely planted region. o Spain: emergence of new kinds of alcohol in 1500s  Sherry • Fortified alcohol—made stronger with distilled alcohol • In this case, it’s wine that has flavourless alcohol added to it (like a brandy, but flavourless) • After the wine’s fermented, they throw in alcohl to take the level from 12% to 18%. • **In south of Spain—in area called JEREZ. Sherry referred to as “sack” sometimes. They began to add alcohol to it initially because ti didn’t survive well when shipped. Adding alcohol meant it could last longer. But that altered the drink entirely.  Port • Another fortified alcohol – made stronger with distilled alcohol • But different because the alcohol is added during fermentation— kills the yeasts doing the fermenting and stops fermentation about halfway trhough. Half the sugar is left so you end up with something sweet. • Port is typically sweet and strong, about 20% alcohol. • **From Portugal. Devised by British traders who wanted to bring wine from south of Spain/Protugal to England, added wine to enable ti to travel. But they created this new style of beverage. • **Has to do with emergence of distilled spirits in 1500s, need to transport wine over long distances, get the wine ther ein good condition. o They wanted to replicate their lifestyle/diet, even through they were in entirely different climate, vegetation, etc. They took their animals and wine with them, tried to set up farming, gardening facilities, eat the same kind of diet, also drink same kinds of beverages. o Wanted to make wi ein Mexico. But you can’t, because of the climate. They tried hard, planted vines in what is now Mexico City. 1520s-1530s: Spanish settlers began to settle around Mexico City, required BY LAW to plant vines!! They were given a certan number of Mexican slaves to wwork on their estates, for every 100 workers they were required to plant 1,000 vines o The vines all died because they were European vines—climate, pests, diseases, etc. didn’t work. o Had to import wine form Spain, but it had to travel long and didn’t last well. o It wasn’t until they begant o expand empire down west coast of South America that they had some luck. By the time they got down to Peru in 1530s, Chile in 1540s-1550s, Argentina 1560s. o **PERU, CHILE, ARGENTINA: most important regions. o Peru: most important of all  Odd because we don’t really talk much about it now…don’t find it a whole lot.  It was the hot region in 1500s.  Within a couple of decades of planting vines: producing milions of liters. Great wine source for much of Latin America. o Chile: vines planted massively  1540s-1560s: many of the vines plante dint hat period were the best regions for vines today.  They knew what they were doing—climate, soil conditions, etc. o Argentina: Mendosa region  Stil the main region for Argentinian wines now o **Well-placed vineyards. Viticulture and wine culture established very quickly in South America. From 1520s/1530s/1540s (30-40 years), established in South America! o Look at the progress of viticulture from Middle East to Greece/Italy—took thousands of years! o Vines were established for a number of reasons:  Supply settlers with wine for consumption  The churchwas prominent in this. Many people involved in identifying best sites for wine production were priests/members of Jesuit order (went with th earmy)—but wine not produced for communion because they only needed a little. Communion wine only consumed by the priest.  All this wine (millions of liters) was being produced for consumption by people on a daily basis  A lot of it was later distilled because they made so much. Made into brandy. Peru: major brandy producer. o Peru is really interesting: take production of wine in late 1700s, put that on a table of wine production today—it would be the 6 largest producer of wine today!! MASSIVE! It’s odd because there’s virtually no wine industry anymore (destroyed in 19 century). o Wine producers of Spain were not happy  Late 1500s:lobbying government of Spain to stop wine production in the colonies  They saw it as great exploit opportunity…but they saw how much the settlers were making, iddn’t want that.  Philip II of Spain issued an edict—no more planting of vines…but they ignored it. o But it was at great cost of the indigenous population…great success economically for the Spanish, though. • Spanish successful at producing wine in Spain, but then they went to Central/South America and produced millions of gallons of wine iwthin a few decades. Exciting for other colonizing nations. The British: keen to produce their own wine in their own colonies (particularly North America). o Wanted it for the English population, they couldn’t produce that much in England —mainly because they wanted to be INDEPENDENT. They were importing from Spain, Italy, France, Germany. They wanted independence. o British went to war with France because of aggressive policies of Louis XIV of France—when they went to war, ceased trading—shortage of wine. o Early 1700s: when at war with the French, the British elites still wanted access to Bordeaux wines. Set up a system whereby French ships loaded up with good wine would sail trhough the English Channel and be intercepted by the British. British would seize the ships, seize the wine, and let the ships go. The wine would be sold at auction, people would buy it, the price was split between the producers and the privateers/others involved. This was a way of beating the embargo, going around the trade issue. o Everyone knew this, that there was a way of gettinga round the embargo. o But trade was always a problem, always interupptions in trade. British wanted to be independent as much as possible. Wanted to use North American colonies to produce wine, with the model of the Spanish to emulate. o Climate of eastern seabord has everything from cool conditions in North-East to humid conditions in Florida/southern part. British couldn’t get vines to grow properly. o They tried in Virginia (Jamestown) in 1600s (first colony). They used the model of the Spanish used in Mexico City—compelled the settlers to plant vines and make wine despite the poor conditions. But they died. o Passed another act compelling them to plant vines! Sent every settler a booklet on how to plant vines. Written by some French guy who’d never been to Virginia. o The vines didn’t grow—too cold, there were diseases/pests the vines weren’t resistant to. The main disease was called PHYLLOXERA. An aphid (tiny insect, yellow) lives on the roots of vines, native to North America. o Problem: when European vines were brought to North America and planted, the phylloxera migrated to these new vines—vines that were not resistant to them! Like bringing influenza to a population with no resistance to influenza. It killed the vines—fed onto the roots, sucked out the sap. The vine grows a callous over the hole in order to protect itself—in the end, the entire root system covered with callouses, prevent vine from taking up minerals/water, so it dies. o Most vines planted in Virginia and many other parts of US in 1600s probably died from phylloxera. o They tried. The British tried in Virginia, Dutch tried in New York, Swedes tried in Delaware… The Dutch tried wine initially, then moved on to beer which was much more successful (grains grew more easily)—beer became more popular in North America.*** o Possibility of drinking water in North America. o Water was much cleaner there o When the Puritans arrived in Plymouth in 1620s and onwards, they panicked because their supplies of beer ran out and they had to go back to the ship—there were supplies of beer, wine, brandy. Rather than drink water from the streams, drank stuff from the ship. o Huge preoccupation with alcohol supplies running out. Suspicion of water. o At lest in the beginning of settlement, water was clean and safe to drink. Only when they were force dto drink it did they discover it was safe. o Other parts of British colonies, water was not good  Virginia in 1625: water described at full of salt or slime/filth. A number of people died from it.  A lot of wells contaminated by salt water  Warmer climate in southern parts enabled bacteria growths that produced epidemics in 1680s and 1690s. o **PARTICULARLY interesting: distinction between fermented and distilled beverages. o In United States, new drinking culture, different from Europe. Europe: dominated by fermented beverages (wine and beer)—distilled played a minor role, even by th 18 century. Yes, there was gin problem for a period, but most people drank fermented (or fortified) beverages. o In United States, difficulty in producing wine (had to be importaed, until at least 19 century whne first wine regions emerged in Indiana and Michigan). o There was beer, but then the Americans rallied to a distilled beverage—RUM! RUM became big drink in colonial America.  Made from fermented molasses (byproduct of sugar production)  Made in the Caribbean from early 1600s (Barbados and Jamaica)  It became a key export to the American colonies.  Sugar plantations were planted in late 1500s in Caribbean region. Sugar came from Asia, there were successful sugar plantations in island of Madeira. With successful conquest of the Caribbean region and creation of French and British colonies, the sugar plantations were made—work done by slave labour.  Slaves brought from Africa and purchased mainly with alcohol. The slave tarde in Africa—alcohol and firearms were main mediums of exchange.  African slaves purchased with alcohol, they then came to do work in the sugar plantations, which was used to produce alocol. o **Rum became most important distilled alcohol in British colonies—it was hard to grow wine, had to be imported. Absence of wine. Distilled spirits much more important in alcohol culture of North America. • 18 century, early nineteenth century (in Europe, also North America) o New alcohols emerged—entered mainstream drinking cultures. FORTIFIED WINES. (Wine with eau de vie added. Eau de vie was not the same as brandy, it was colourless pure alcohol, meant to add to drinks and not be drunk on its own.)  Port  Madeira  Sherry o Port: initially in 1600s o Eau de vie added to stabilize it—alcohol is a preservative, make things last longer o Was meant to stabilize it for shipping/transportation o When British begant o get wine from Portugal in 1600s, they found it was spoiled by the time it got to British ports. They added alcohol to it. We don’t know how much they added, but we think that by early 1700s, around 3% of barrel was alcohol. o By mid-1700s, they were adding 10% o By late 1700s, they were adding 17%. Like a high-alcohol wine today. o Proportion went up. Port got stronger during the 18 century. Now it’s even stronger, around 25%. o Madeira o Fortified wine, made on island of Madeira o This is an appellation now o It’s usually pale with amber colour, made in same way as port and sherry— adding eau de vie to wine o Begant o add eau de vie to the wine of Madeira- -an island in the Atlantic, belongs to Portugal. The wine being shipped down to Africa or across to American colonies was going bad in the barrels. Added eau de vie to preserve it. o But for some reason, the wine wasn’t off-loaded when it got to destination. It came back from destination. And when they tasted it, they found it was even better than it was when it left. They didn’t know whether it was the heat, or the rocking effect on the ship. They kept the wine for extra period on Maderia, simulated the heat and rocking of trans-Atlantic voyage (left barrels out on the sun, had slaves rock the barrels). Created a different kind of beverage. o Similar to sherry. o What makes it differtn from port is that it’s slightly oxidized—oxygen had chemical reaction, created oxidized flavor. Oxidation is often not a good thing with wine, but in certain cases like sherry and Madeira, it’s part of the manufacturing process. o Madeira becam important in 1700s. Started off as a cheap thing, but by en do f18th century it was luxury beverage. Barrel of Maderia increased by 1600% over the course of the century. o Particularly popular in east coast of US, in the South (Charleston, etc.) o Sherry varies a lot. Can go from clear like water to black. Can go from bone-dry (puckering your mouth) to super sweet and rich (pours like molasses, like drinking raisin pie). Somwhere in the middle, there’s a sherry that tastes like Madeira. o **For the most part, Madeira was trans-Atlantic commodity while port was a European commodity. o Alcohol was taxed. System of taxation everywhere, but it was usually excise tax —taxed as it passed through certain borders. In France (before Revolution, there was no national market/economy…all the economies were regional and various provinces all had provincial governments…Burgundy, Bordeaux, etc.), if you wanted to ship anything by land across France, every time you crossed provincial boundary, had to pay a tax. To ship from Bordeaux to Paris, go across 3 or 4 boundaries, its value had increased maybe 4 times—it was sold to consumers for high price. France was series of regional economies. Wasn’t until Revolution that these boudnaries were erased and nation of France was created—freed up the market. French Revolution created first national market. o There was a lot of money to be made from taxation…Americans taxed alcohol and its production. o 1791: tax to enable federal government ot collect taxes on distilled spirits (from other countries). Spirits produced in US from imported ingredients (molasses) taxed at a lower rate. And spirits produced in US from local ingredients (completely domestic) taxed at even lower rate. Distinction between large and small brewers, too. o All spirit production was now to be taxed—very different. o Tax would prove to be very unpopular. The New Republic formed, needed money —taxed the production of ANY spirits, including spirits produced for domestic consumption. A lot of farmers used to make corn and produce their own corn whiskey (for their consumption or to trade with their neighbours). Government set up bureaucracy with tax inspectors, calculate how much was being made and impose a ta.x. o Whiskey Rebellion, 1794—farmers rebelled, attacked the offices of the alcohol tax, attacked some of the inspectors and bureaucrats themselves. The rebellion was put donw, but important reaction to this new kind of tax being imposed. o American Revolution: shift in drinking patterns from rum to whiskey. Rum was made from molasses, from British West Indies. War of independence: British colonies casesd shipping molasses (trade imbargo), Americans didn’t have ingredients to make rum. But there was lots of corn, could make whiskey out of it —became patriotic drink. Rum associated with imperialism… o French Revolution: see decrease in wine prices. 1791, the French eliminated their alcohol tax. Before Revoulition, sales taxes on all kinds of good (soap, firewood, wine). 1791, abolished these taxes, restricted system to get rid of sales taxes and create income taxes instead to raise the money. A large amount of price of wine before was taxes. o Before central taxes were abolished, epopel tried to evade the taxes. By late 1700s, a lot of communities just outside of the city walls—they were able to sell wine outside more cheaply because when alcohol was brought in, had to pay tax on it. But outside in cabarets, inns, etc., alcohol was cheaper. Migration outsid eon the weekends to drink cheap alcohol. City authorities sent navies to build new walls, bring them within boundaries so it would no longer be cheap. This continued on and on, for people in the centre it became more and more difficult to get cheap alcohol. o People were inventive when it came to getting cheap alcohol—found ways of smuggling wine through the gates. Women could carry it under their skirts. Would also drill holes through the wall, put the bottle through and someone would collect them. Sometimes put them in animal bladders and threw them over the wall. Lots of ways of avoiding things. There were about 80 holes drilled through city walls within a few months of putting them up. o Alcohol was an issue, part of daily diet, part of the culture. Anything to bring the price down was important. o **First action of French REvoulition: destruction of customs barriers, where taxes were assessed on various goods. July 13, 1789, all of these barriers were burned down by crowds. The destruction of the Bastille took place a few days later. Prof would argue that this was actually important—crowd actions, mobilizing the crowd. o We don’t have much sense of drinking patterns in French Revolution—the first night (may 1, midnight, 1791), they abolished taxes. 200 carts loaded with alcohol came through the gates, first duty free alcohol. People partied and stayed up late. Lots of prints and accounts of the party to celebrate cheap alcohol. o Consumption probably went up dring Revultion. Vineyards were expanded— whether it was for wine or brandy. Population didn’t move very much, but production went up, so consumption clearly went up as well. o The revolutions not of overwhelming importance, but they are for taxes—one started collecting taxes, the other eliminated taxes. o **One of the effects of shortage of French wine: peole looked for other types of alcohol • Scotch whiskey industry really took off because of this • US—imports of French wine redued, gave opportunity for California wine to take off. New California industry taking up the market. o California wine industry: result of the gold rush. People rushed to California to get gold, stayed, got land, and cultivated grapes. • Also have rise to popularity of ertain beverages in France—brandy became popular, also ABSINTHE!! o Iconic beverage made form herbs and spices, also having an ingredient called “thujone” form root of the wormwood plant (said to have hallucinogenic properties) o Became popular from 1840s o Came from North Africa o Had been used for medicinal purposes—curing dysentery, malaria o Became popular in the bistros and bars of Paris particularly, in 1860s-1870s. 5pm in afternoon was time tha tpeope drank absinthe, became known as the “green hour” (l’heur verte) o Was consumed in ritualized manner—had to be diluted with water. Water was poured into a glass, special slotted spoon placed over the top, sugar cube placed over that. Absinthe poured over it so it dissolves the sugar. Magical transformation takes place. Produces a yellow, cloudy liquid. Can make it as strong or weak as you like. o Pastisse/Pernaut: absinthe-like beverages. o Very strong smell of aniseed. th o But we see big transformations in drinking patterns in 19 century—shift towards more spirits: States, France, England. Women and Alcohol • Ancient Egypt o Women were drinking too, although there was some suspicion about them being promiscuous. • Ancient Greece o Symposiums were elite events, male events. Women were not permitted except as daners/singers/prostitutes/serving people. • Ancient Rome  Very likely that women didn’t drink wine (prejudice against that, there were points in Republic hwne a man could divorce his wife or even kill her if he found her drinking wine, based on assumption that she’d become promiscuous)  She can’t tell the difference between her head and her groin…women los etheir moral compass. Men were afraid of this—threat to the control that men exercise over women.  A woman found with keys to the wine cellars was left on a rock to die…  A great deal of suspicion of women drinking  So probably women weren’t drinking a lot • High Middle Ages—1000AD o Urbanization—growth of alcohol industry, retail, commercial production—Most beer used tobe made in countryside by women for families, sometimes to barter to neighbours and friends. But this couldn’t exist in cities—didn’t have the conditions for brewing o Before this period, a great deal of brewing was done by women—part of household production, because beer was liquid bread. Women were the brewers. o Rigid division of labour in the household. o But women were unable to participate in the industry, when it became commercial. Women didn’t have access to the capital necessary. o When you do find them, it’s because they were widows of the brewer. o No tradition of women participating in large-scale production of anything. Didn’t have acess to trade networks that men did. o Social division that prevented them from networking o Didn’t have full rights in the guilds, couldn’t take advantage of many opportunities for guild members o Decline in women’s participatin in brewing over this period. o Oxford, 1311: 137 women brewers. By 1348: 83 brewers. Clear reduction in number of brewsters. o By end of 1500s, scarcely any brewsters left. Anyone left was widow. o Also a technological shift in beer at this time o What we’ve called beer all this time was actually ale. o We tend to call beer beer. Tendency for us to say beer all the way through. But beer became distinguished from ale. o Most of the beer of early medieval period is more properly thought of as ale. o Distinction: presence of hops in beer  Type of flour (from hop plant) that gets added to the beer to add flavor and preserve it  Gives bitterness to beer, also a preservative  Hops begant o be used in 1200s. By the end of 1200s, widely used. Germany, Scandinavia, England resisted it. It wasn’t as sweet, also not as alcoholic.  Hops are a preservative, dn’t need as much alcohol and it would still last as long. o Beer: thought to be a modern drink  Like ale, but not as sweet, had a different flavor  Brewsters had been making ale  Hopping of beer associated with the commercialization of beer production  Ale associated with women, beer associated with men  Partly this association that helped to reduce participation of womenin brewing industry. They were associated with a kind of beverage that was making its way out.  Hop beer became much more dominant o General attack on brewsters—thought that women with alcohol demeaned women o Brewsters: immoral people, dishonest, deceitful o Passed on immoral qualities to their product o General attack on women o Construction of the witch in 16 and 17 centuries o Similar descriptions of the brewsters as there were for witches o Women continued to brew on domestic basis, but even that diminished in importance o But disappeared in terms of commercial production • 1720s-1750s, Gin Craze in England o Gin became known as “Mother Gin”—linked it to women and children. Claimed that women fed ti to older children to keep them calm (like cough medicines), fed it to infants via their maternal milk.  “Gin Lane”—woman breastfeeding and drunk on gin, letting the child fall to its death (allegation that women neglected their families), disorder and decay all associated with gin… Emaciated person with a bottle in a basket whn there should be food (spending all their money on drink and not on food), Londoners bringing their goods to a pawn shop (selling a saw, tool that they make a living with) to get money to buy gin, women trading in pots and pans (what they’ dnormally cook with…not feeding their families), buildings collapsing, tavern with a hanging sign of a coffin, people being embalmed, people fighting, etc. Decay, social disorder, everything because of gin.  One work says “child-bearing women are haivn strong liquors…love os strong liquors before they can even call for them or see them”. Belief that children are born addicted to gin by their mothers drinking gin while pregnant. One work describes the children of gin-drinking mothers as “hump-backed…monkey’s face…etc.” All bearing a mark fo their mother’s folly.  Commentators insisted that the demand for milk went down, the yblaemd mothers and nurses for feeding their children gin rather than milk when they were young.  Special attention on mother and children, effects of gin drinking.  **Attempts at describing effects that we’d recognize as the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome.  Gin was believed to lead to high levels of infant mortality, also to poulations with physical and other issues that would lead to decline of England.  One commentator describes fetal alcohol syndrome, adds that “we’ve gone to this trouble, got this empire, and now we have this wated generation that can’t defend it”.  Stress on women and the evils of women’s drinking—reassertion of belief that women are destined to be mothers, have certain responsibilities to their families. Drinking for them was unnatural. By hurting their families by drinking, they were acting unnaturally.  These ideas of what was natural/unnatural: important during 1700s.  Another link is with breastfeeding. 18 century was fixated on the female breast—breastfeeding iomportant. Rousseau condemns use of wetnurses because it’s the mother’s obligation. Breast became important. When Lennaus (Swedish scientist) was drawing up categories of life, he included mammals: when the female suckles the young. Emphasis on breastfeeding.  **Focuses on women, children, population, natural role of women. o Dram shops Considered to have a lot of women involved  It’s possible that they did congregate there because they didn’t congregate to taverns/alehouses—it had no tradition of gendered clientele, they began to take up the clientele  Gave them opportunity to gather together—men found this to be problematic • 18 century Europe o Strong relationship between port and masculinity. The more you could drink, the more masculine you were.  Of course, this is still going on now, but this was almost institutionalized in England with port in the 1700s  Men expected to be “3 bottle man”. Expected to drink three bottles of port at one session, remain standing and reasonably articulate at the same time.  Bear in mind that there’s less alcohol in alcohol then (14-16%) than there is now (about 20%).  Also the size was different—bottles weren’t standardized until 1820s- 1830s. Bottles were individually blown. They were as big as glass- blower’s lungs. They varied in shape and volume. So they oculd have been smaller than they are today.  Also, there would have been sediment at the bottom of the bottle and you wouldn’t have finished it.  So, three bottles would be impressive but manageable by a manly man.  Became matter of pride to drink more than three bottles. Some were reputed to be six bottle men—Prime Minister of England. University of Oxford prof was a 13 bottle man. th  Quote from Dr. Johnson, 18 century scholar at Oxford—he said “Claret is the liquor for boys, port is the liquor for men…but he who aspire to be a hero drinks brandy.”  **Brandy was also used as a drink in its own right. We see a big increase in brandy production in west of France, early 1700s. The consumption of it likely increased dramatically. o Age and Alcohol • Greece: humours theory—children are hot, dangerous to give them wine or they’ll get too hot • Rome: very young children didn’t drink, it was considered unsafe. We don’t know at what age they drank, there are no records. But they would have been considered to be at the age of reason at age 7… • High Middle Ages o No age restrictions at this period  Age was not thought to be particularly important  Age is important now because many things we do are regulated by age (driving licence, drinking age, voting age, etc.)  There was no voting, no motor vehicles, could ride a horse as long as you could steer one  Seven was the age of reason—after that ,could be held criminaly liable for offenses. That’s it.  Not until 19 century was it thought to be important • Gin Craze, 1720s-1750s  One work says “child-bearing women are haivn strong liquors…love os strong liquors before they can even call for them or see them”. Belief that children are born addicted to gin by their mothers drinking gin while pregnant. One work describes the children of gin-drinking mothers as “hump-backed…monkey’s face…etc.” All bearing a mark fo their mother’s folly.  Commentators insisted that the demand for milk went down, the yblaemd mothers and nurses for feeding their children gin rather than milk when they were young.  Special attention on mother and children, effects of gin drinking.  **Attempts at describing effects that we’d recognize as the effects of fetal alcohol syndrome.  Gin was believed to lead to high levels of infant mortality, also to poulations with physical and other issues that would lead to decline of England.  One commentator describes fetal alcohol syndrome, adds that “we’ve gone to this trouble, got this empire, and now we have this wated generation that can’t defend it”.  Stress on women and the evils of women’s drinking—reassertion of belief that women are destined to be mothers, have certain responsibilities to their families. Drinking for them was unnatural. By hurting their families by drinking, they were acting unnaturally.  These ideas of what was natural/unnatural: important during 1700s. th  Another link is with breastfeeding. 18 century was fixated on the female breast—breastfeeding iomportant. Rousseau condemns use of wetnurses because it’s the mother’s obligation. Breast became important. When Lennaus (Swedish scientist) was drawing up categories of life, he included mammals: when the female suckles the young. Emphasis on breastfeeding.  **Focuses on women, children, population, natural role of women. o Social Class and Alcohol • Ancient Egypt (3000BC) o The laws in Egypt prescribed that only certain categories—the wealthy, kings, lords, priests—could drink  Sumptuary law: Regulate consumption of commodities—food, drink, most of them deal with dress (certain social categories allowed to wear certain things while the rest cannot). A way of creating social distinctions.  There were sumptuary laws in ancient Egypt dictating who was allowed to drink wine—beer was for everyone else, wine only for the elites. • Ancient Greece (about 2000BC) o Key institution for Greece was the symposium—“drinking together”. Posion=drinking.  Key institution for elite males in ancient Greece  Plays centerd on the symposium  Gathering of 12-24 men, all-night drinking party. But you weren’t supposed to get drunk. They would drink wine, it was always diluted. The hsot would decide on level of dilution—generally it was 1/3 wine and 2/3 water. Generally tried to calibrate level of dilution so people could drink all night and be happy/social, but not get so drunk that they’d be annoying, fall asleep, or get sick.  Dilution was really important.  Wine served out of a krater (big serving dish), served into drinking vessels.  Very ornate decorations on drinking vessels and kraters. Many illustrations show a symposium.  Recline on couches and drink diluted wine, eat food, chat about politics, literature, the arts. Be civilized. There could be singing, dancing. Prostitutes could turn up from time to time. Could have sex with serving boys.  Some were more sexual, some were more parties, some focuse don art and literature. Many were a combination of these.  Wine was central—people played wine games.  One was called kottabos: illustration of male reclining on couch, holding drinking vessel (called a kailex) and playing kottabos. A rod on a stand o the floor, a piece of metal halfway down, on the top they’d balance a saucer. When you finished wine from cup, have some dregs left at the bottom (grape seeds, skin), try to flick them and knock the saucer on the floor, it would hit the piece of metal halfway down and ring a bell.  Also had container full of water with saucers floating—try to hit a saucer with your wine and make it sink.  Games of skill, employ wine as part of the games. Show that you’re wealthy enough to throw wine away.  Displays of eliteness. o Although the masses drank wine, it was not the same quality. Nto from dried grapes (lower alcohol, thinner, paler). Commentaries about wine: they valued colour (deep colour), also intense flavours and sweetness (oftn added honey and other sweeteners). They also thought lead was a good thing to add to wine, th although there was talk about lead being poisonous—right up to 18 century. Because lead is a sweetener… • Ancient Rome o Highest level:  dried grapes, pressed (high in alcohol, a lot of flavor), mixed with other commodities (honey, lead, sometimes spices and herbs, sometimes sea water to give it saltiness) o Further down:  Made of spoiled wine (we call it vinegar) and water. Very little alcohol, it was sour, had acetic acid, killed off bacteria in the water. Bacteria would not have been present in the good wine because of high alcohol level. o Lora:  Made of the dregs of what’s left over after wine making. Seeds, skins, bits of twigs, dead rodents, etc. Put water in that, let it soak. You get a bit of alcohol, a bit of colour, hardly any flavor. Very weak. This was given to the poor, probably also the soldiers o ** Just enough to make it safe to drink (safer than water). Alcohol became important because water supplies became problematic. Within 100 years of settling by the Tiber river, the water became undrinkable. Pollution from leather factories and other manufactures on the side that dumped their residue in the water, human waste in the water, executed bodies dumped in the water. o **VERY poor people drank water and died. • Middle Ages o We know that nuns and monks had access to ration of alcohol on daily basis. Order of St. Benedict allowed daily measure of wine for each monk. But Benedict suggested that monks should not drink wine…at least agree to drink temperally. A hermina (0.5L) a day is sufficient for each. But those upon whom God bestows abstinence will have a reward. o Also had beer rations o Skipping to 8 and 9 centuries: monks drank about 1.5L of alcohol a day each, nuns drank a bit less (1.38L). o We don’t know about the lay people…we have a variety of sources. Lay people drink between 0.6L and 2.3L of wine a day. Probably there was increase in alcohol consumption during festivities (parties, weddings, feast days). Probably less during periods of penance (reflecting upon sinfulness, like Lent). o Illustration of a monk going down to the cellar to get wine for dinner for his fellow monks. Filling a pitcher but also helping himself to some extra wine. o A reminder that even though the clergy were limited in the amount they were suppose dto drink, there was thougth to be a widespread drinking problem among the clergy. During penance,s they’re quite aware of drinking issues with the clergy. • High Middle Ages o **MAJOR WINE TRADING ROUTES, NEW. From about 1200 onwards. o Among the big buyers: aristocracy, the wealthy. o 1243: Henry III of England ordered 1.6 million litres of wine for the court. Festivities, weddings, etc. People went through massive amounts of alcohol. • Gin Craze, 1720s-1750s o Class element—opponents of unregulated spirits tended to be wealthy distillers, set themselves apart from small operations (poorer). Dram shops described as squalid hangouts for dregs of society, whereas owners of taverns/alehouse were considered to be good members of society. • 16 Century Europe o The poor of Europe constituted big slice of population, couldn’t afford alcohol. Drank water. Often contaminated, unsafe, bearer of epidemic diseases. Contributed to low life expectancy of the poor in early modern period. o (Also housing conditions, general health an d nutrition, but absence of alcohol must have also contributed.) o Maybe ¼ of population was poor—that ¼ could expand to 1/3 at times of crisis. They probably drank water. th • 18 century Europe o appear to have growth of heavy drinking by wealthy people o Exemplified by port o We see growing distinction between drinking by wealthy people an drinking by poor people. Move away from undifferentiated condemnation (in previous centuries, warnings against general excessive drinking). th o But in 18 century, we see rationalization for the different attitudes towards them. It was said that when poor drink, it tends to be socially disruptive. They drink out in public, tended to be socially disruptive. For that reason, heavy drinkin by the poor was matter of public concern. Law enforcers should be able to step in and control drinking by poor people. But wealthy people tended to drink privately in their homes (not taverns)—in the case of men and port, drank in their clubs. Quite different between them—public vs. private. o Drinking by poor in public places can lead to roudiness, disruption—needed to be controlled. Wealthy dirnking at home could be disruptive if they wanted to be, violent in subdued kind of way, but it was outside public view and not danger to public order. Could be just left. o Also general sense that when well-off people drank heavily, it was sign of moral weaknes,s no reason to punish people for it. When poor drank, they drank to get drunk and cause problems—could be prosecute for these kinds of acts. o Poor more likely to neglect families/responsibilities, drink the money that should have gone to provide for wives an dchildrne. o IN many cases, alcohol was implicated in not only public violence but also private violence. Look at divorce cases in France—many cases of family conflict and
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