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Social History of Alcohol.docx

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HIST 3109
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Social History of AlcoholLecture 1alcohol is ethanolbeverage alcohol made by converting sugar mainly fructose wine grapes are sweeterCan trace alcoholic beverages to 7000 BCearliest evidence of alcohol in China Marula fruit in East Africa gets elephants drunkLecture 2Beer common wine less common and for elites more is known about wine and winemaking than beerBeer can be made throughout the year can store ingredients Wine can only be made once a year and must be made after the harvestmore records of wine because elites drank it Two main areas where evidence of alcohol first found northern china and the Middle Eastwine probably made in very small quantities grown in gardens among other plants which had yeasts on themNo evidence of clear transfer of beer brewing knowledge happens in many places china 8000 BC 3000BC Middle East 3000 BC Scotland 3000BC Egypt 3000 BC Many cultures developed independently Suggestion that first commercial brewery located in Peru first distillery in PakistanIndia not sure just interesting points3000 BC methods of production and patterns of consumption more clearEgypt written and pictorial information Grapes grown on trees or wires slaves pick grapes slaves tread grapes put in clay jars possibly lined with resin wine put on ship and sent to destination Wine drunk through cups beer through strawsBeer had lots of bits and pieces straw would help avoid things floating on the top Egyptians talked about both the joys and dangers of drinking alcohol Laws that regulate consumptionsumptuary law Most deal with dress distinguishing social class It can also be with food and drink Greeks first to distinguish wine as civilized and beer as barbaric Beer was good for ancients beer had more caloric value than bread with equal amounts of grain Usually flavoured with herbs alcohol content likely lower than today 34 percent for beer 910 percent for wine wine was buried with king tut King Midas buried in a mount with the remnants of a funerary feast Stew with beverage of mixed wine beer mead Alcohol often associated with religion Dionysus Greek and Bacchus Roman deities of wine Suggested of feeling of wellbeing from drinking was otherworldly Drinking alcohol and wine became known as approaching the gods apparent miracle of fermentation Egypt alcohol widely used as medicine good medium for making medicine because dissolves things better Alcohol became increasingly popular and widespread as time went on in ancient times and culture of alcohol became more complex Suspicion about women and commoners drinking Wine from Mesopotamia Egypt Crete Greece Italy France Northern Europe In Greece vines grow quite well Amphoraeclay Jars made for storingEach islandregion had their own particular amphorae Very important for wine oil and grain trade Massive wine trade wine used as trading commodity Symposiumlit drinking together Main institution for drinking Gathering of elite to an allnight drinking party 1224 men drink diluted wine and eat all night Host would decide on level of dilution want people to drink all night without falling asleep Wine served out of kraters recline on bedsbenches discussion prostitutes games etc Vast majority of population would drink paler less alcoholic flavourful and sweet than that of ththe elite Added lead to wine and cider until the 18 century as a sweetener Elite drank wine made from dry grapesGreeks thought beer was uncivilized and made men effeminate belief that drinking too much can lead to bursting into flames Greeks looked down on beer drinkers
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