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HIST 3507 Notes.docx

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HIST 3507
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thSeptember 20 British Migration and Imperialism NationalismAs Akenson has pointed out British identity tends to subsume other British Isles nationalities Scottish Welsh Irish etcEnglish is conflated with British Before the 1960s British identity is not in conflict with English Canadian and for some French Canadian identityconcept of a British world as Phil Buckner argues or imagined community as Benedict Anderson writes British immigration was the largest in Canada symbols that resonated with a more Canadian identity proliferated after 1960s eg the Maple Leaf Flag British immigration reflected ethnic class and gender divisionsPre1870s Irish and Scottish receive most attention from scholars1880 forward English the dominant group invisible immigrants Uppermiddle and upperclass men gentlemen immigrantsremittance men were used to having a class position in Britain that was not adopted in Canada labouring classes and labour leaders received bad press for bringing radicalism to Canada Signs in some storefronts read No English not British need apply because of these stereotypesSingle English women were also discriminated against middle and upperclass single women were considered surplus in England whereas workingclass women were expected to work Middle and upperclass women were expected to get married but due to shortage of ththmen in the late 19 and early 20 centuries they went to CanadaWomen took on a civilizing mission in Western Canada including discouraging miscegenation After WWII educated and skilled generally male workers were involved in fostering British identityUrbanization according to John Tosh was seen as feminizing thus to fashion masculinity public schools were created to make Empire a male spacePhysical endurance stoicism austerity adventure associated with Empire encouraged by public schools boys periodicals Literature focussed on Canadamilitary conquest British and Canadian women however also claimed power in spheres relating to women and children they didnt come up with a separate ideology of empire but they wanted to assert their presence Girls Friendly Society was created in 1874 to encourage personal contact between middle and workingclass girls a religious society that upheld empire and sponsored emigration in doing so British race AngloSaxon race imperial race were interchangeable Edward Said writes in Orientalism that those who had power over culture could assert their own superiority against the otherso pervasive it became common knowledge Despite this whiteness was a category in fluxDid the empire as an imagined community include subalterns such as people from India who were British subjects Sexual equality was not at heart of Hindu Womans Question in 1912it was Indian mens right to form families Many Canadians argued that wives of subaltern men should be allowed entry because it discouraged interracial sexualityfear of vulnerable white woman being preyed upon The Aryan was published to assert British whiteness The Home Children were a special group of migrants mostly from England but also elsewhere throughout the British Isleswho were theyAt least 88 000 children who mainly arrived between 18691928 Some of these were waifs and straysChurch of England had a Waifs and Strays Societyand street arabs Some home children were orphans but most were surrendered by families to poor law guardians ie the state or philanthropicreligious institutionsparents were casualties of urban industrial society prior to staterun social welfareWhy did parents give up their childrenLack of sanitation in the city led to disease fathers died cutting off source of income
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