Final Exam Review.docx

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Interdisciplinary Science
ISCI 1001
John Buschek

Final Exam: Environmental science (Chapters 5-9, 14-16) Chapter 5: Foundations Competition- when multiple organisms are seeking the same limited resource - Can drive population cycles and evolutionary change o Camouflage- adaption in colours, patterns, and behaviours to help organisms hide o Warning coloration- many species, those that taste bad are often toxic and inflict pain o Mimicry- mimics behaviour of a dangerous or hard to catch species o Moment of truth defense- last ditch defense- smell, Biomimicry- the examination of nature, its models, systems, processes, and elements Parasitism- When an individual from one species uses another species to benefit oneself without harming the host in any way - Ectoparasite- on you (lice) - Eudoparasite- lives in you (tape worm) - Micro- bacteria, reproduce rapidly, microscopic - Macro- invertebrates, fungi o Hemi parasitic- Take water and nutrients from the host o Example- sea lamprey - Social Parasite- don’t eat things, manipulates the hosts behaviour Herbivore- animals that live on plant tissue Mutualism- both species interact and both benefit - Symbiosis- close physical interaction - Not symbiotic include pollination Parasitoids- kill the host (insect larvae) Amensalism- one organism is harmed and the other is unaffected Commensalism- one species benefits and the other is unaffected Producer- self feeders Consumer- eat another species - Primary- eat producers - Secondary- eat primary consumers - Tertiary- eat primary, secondary and producers Detritovores- millipede, eat waste products Decomposers- break down non-living matter Food chain- single path through trophic levels Keystone species- species with an especially strong impact, holds structure together Primary Succession- starts from no species, - Glacier or volcano - Pioneer species- Lichens: best suited for colonizing on bare rock Secondary succession- starts from few species - Farm land Climax community- resolved community stays intact until next succession Invasive species- produce disturbance and often lead to succession Biome-major regional complexes of similar communities - Terrestrial biomes- rainfall, vegetation, temperature High altitude/ low latitude - Clean air - Intense solar radiation - Large day/night temp change - Seasonal changes High lat/ low alt - Smaller day/ night temp change - Ground level pollution - Filtering of solar radiation 5 vegetation patterns - Forests- trees close enough together that their crown touch - Savannah- scattered trees in a grassy or shrubby area - Thicket- tall shrubs or small trees close together - Grassland- grasses and other herbs, trees sparse - Desert- plants sparse, shrubby vegetation Temperate deciduous forest - Mild growing season - Moderate precipitation - Leaf shedding - 4 layers o Tree layer o Shrub layer o Grass layer o Ground layer Northern coniferous forest - Short summer, long winter - Evergreen trees - Constant snow cover - Ground- thick layer of needles, twigs and fungi Tundra - Very cold and long winters- even for conifers - Grassland- 10% of level surface - Permafrost- top soil will thaw a few cm in summer Chapter 6- issues and solutions Population growth= (BR-DR) + (Total impact-E) Total fertility rate= Malthusian- the rate of population growth will result in limited resources and will have negative impacts on the environment and humans Cornucopian- don’t believe that earth has a limited carrying capacity IPAT - I = P x A x T - I- total impact - P- population - A- affluence - T- technology S- Sensitivity factor (sometimes added) Demography- statistical change in human populations Paleolithic period- control of fire, shape and use of stones Hunter gatherer- production of resources from land  growing crops and herding animals Industrial revolution- animal powered agriculture, fossil fuels Medical- Technological Revolution- development in medicine, sanitation and communication technologies Population pyramids- age structure diagrams Rate of growth is slowing but the absolute size of the population is increasing Replacement fertility- keeps population size stable Chapter 7: Soil Resources Soil- not merely loose material (from rocks) - Complex plant supporting system o Organic matter o Disintegrated rock o Water o Gas o Nutrients o Microorganisms Parent material- base geological material in a given location, from which that soil is formed Pore spaces- space between mineral grains, water fills up these spaces Bedrock- solid rock
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