JOUR 1000 REVIEW.docx

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Journalism and Communication
JOUR 1001
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JOUR 1000 REVIEW1 Approaches to Media and CommunicationWhy Study Media History1Because contemporary issues have historical rootsall media technologies have their own historical roots in which they were produced Studying history can help us to avoid making the same mistake twice2Because media have influence and importancehelp for ideological environment and personal worldviews Contradiction the role of the media is not to educate but for profit exception public broadcasting 3Because studying media history helps avoid technological determinism when a societys technology determines its cultures values societal structure or history Instead of TD its social construction Opposing forces shapes technology How Can We Think About Media History1By thinking critically disregarding assumptions 2By thinking dialectically thesisantinthesissynthesisCommunications the process by which a message is encoded transmitted and decoded and the manner in which a message is transformed by that three part process Media the means and transmission of communication It does not simply transmits but transforms which changes the way news is perceived Formal history of Canada begins with InnisEach manner of communicating has its own bias The bias changes society Oral societies have a time bias Literate societies have a space biasCanadas lines of communication developed through techCanada unified through technology but was vulnerable to dependency Approaches to Media and Democracy1Former Soviet Model of Media owned and operated by state journalists accountable to state and citizens responsible for creating socialism2Development Model media are used in national interest to reach countries goals state owned media as servants of development Kenya 1963thth3Libertarian or Free Press 17 to 19 by liberal philosophers John Milton Humans must be free to choose between good and evil This extended to ththe press Locke 18 c God created individuals born with rights He influenced public opinion on freedom of press Press as a watchdog against govt interference John Stuart Mill humans have a social duty to freely express themselves He balances this with social needs This approach was used in Canada because of the Americans ideas of democracy Assumptions all will be heard equally individuality more important than common good CitizenshipProfit4Political Economy Smith 18c opposed to intervention self interested actions will be good for society Marx opposed to conservatism rejected religion and individualism belief in collective action for collective good He believed there should not be a free market but structured by powerful Libertarian views do not work in a complex society It favours regulation no foreign investment and strong public media Assumptions citizens cannot make rational decisions powerful do not have public interest at heart th5Social Responsibility developed in 20 century with radio They decided there was a need to balance publisher rights with public rights The media are in a position that they are responsible to society for essential communication in service of democracy Hutchins Commission US 1947 must be accountable for public interest social responsibility MAAWD Kent Canada 1981 balance of freedom and protection Dominant approach on Canada 2 Early Communications in CanadaEuropean contact was the beginning of literate society that used western specific knowledge that relied on printed word Mass media began with printing press at the beginning of renaissanceMiddle Ages c5001500 marks transition away from oral and the age when knowledge came from God 105 paper in China 1241 Korean typewriterRenaissance c11001600 new order growth of ideas need to communicate printing press 1454 spreads literacy new authority 1493 news of ColumbReformation and Counter Reformation c15001650 Protestants attack Catholics 1644 Milton pamphlet free press 1650 coffeehouses for exchange of news in England and FranceInquisition c 14801835 renewed church power heresy after centuries of control alternatives developed 1670 term newspaper used in letter 1712 British stamp act prevents reading of newspapersEnlightenment c16401780 age of reason literacy and rational thinking no longer subject to church more complex societies political parties 1759 printing press used for religious tracts 1768 illegal pamphlets target French monarchy Impact Revolution US 1776 France 1789 Industrial Revolution 1814 steam engine used to print paper 1825 high US circulationPrinting press filled an already existing need Modernity 18801940 industrialization mechanization urbanization migration electrification massification all of this fosters the need for communication and transportation Telegraph 1848 move peoplegoods through distances State Electric Telegraph Act 1852 Business keen interest consolidated into duopoly of
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