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LAWS 1000
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LAW REVIEWLecture 2 Defining Law State Dispute Resolution Social Control Social Change Coercion using forceoWe seem to know exactly what law is but it is actually very socially contingent oBased on societal norms temporal norms ideas of what law is and what its meant to achieveoBinding practice or custom of a community a rule of conduct or action formally recognized and enforced by a society the control brought about by the sovereign Dictionary definitionoVery vague and contradicts itself What is a custom its a practice and yet it says that it is a binding rule meaning its not a practice If we always line up at the bus stop or tip someone at the bus stop it is a rule you follow for yourself and it is the social custom of where you liveDoes law require the state we want this to prevent conflict but does it necessarily require the state The majority of disputes in a society are resolved outside of court Most people avoid the state when resolving conflicts by following customs Social control and change does the state need to have control Nowhere in British law does it say that they have to drive on the opposite side of the road State is the only authority that can force us to obey the law through police and other means Laws society based temporal contingent on cultural factors They are a series of social choices that have been imposed in Canada or decided upon in Canada Problems with Defining LawConceptualPluralistic Conceptual WB Gallie and the idea of and essentially contested conceptNo coreIs the dispute about the use of the concept or the very concept itselfothere are some concepts like justice fairness art that we cant agree because they dont have a core of the concept if you try to define a table you canoif you try to define the core of law you cant law is not a table law is more like artits a concept where there is dispute of what that concept is but its that very dispute that defines it because everyone tries to define it but cantConditions of an essentially contested concepto1 Evaluate requires judgment whether something fits in that subject or not o2 Internally complex character can be contradictory o3 Evaluation must be attributed to the internally complex character as a whole we have to look at the big picture o4 Elements of the internally complex entity are desirable we like that its complex gives us room to contest o5 Different uses of the concept will give different weight to different elements of the concept we use it differently depending on what we try to argue we take the side of the idea that best fits our judgment o6 Psychological and sociological factors can effect which elements are considered in the concept moral factors are to be taken into considerationo7 Disputed concept is openended we will debate it always it will be disputed between and in society thats why its hard to resolve issues there will always be disputes LegalPluralismasituationinwhichtwoormorelegalsystemscoexistinthesamesocialfieldwearefollowinglegalpluralismrightnowbylawsclassrulescampusrulesfederallawsocialrulewecanliveundermultiplesocialsystemsatthesametimewhichoneismoreimportantcanvarythanothersatacertainpointinyourlifearulemaybemoreimportantthannowreligiousrulesmayinfluenceyoumorepluralismcanexistbwlegalsystemslikecommonlawcivilaboriginalprivateconstitutionalpublicorreligiouslawsthinkofpluralismin2waysverticallycoexistinglegalsystemshorizontalpowerofstructureLegalsystemsandlegaltraditionslegalsystemsarecomprisedofolegalinstitutionssocialismdemocracyetcoproceduresoruleslegalsystemsarebroadwaysofcategorizingdifferenttypesoflawswhicharedifferentthanlegalinstitutionslegaltraditionsisthefamilyoflegalsystemsthataresimilartoeachotherExamplesoflegalsystemsCivillawgoesbacktoancientRomeandEmperorJustiniancodifiedlawsofRomewrittendocumentwhenRomanEmperorfellthosecodeswerecarriedoninchurchesanduniversitiesandformedbasisoflegalsystemnowwrittendownincodesandtakecodeandapplytolawCommonlawevolvedinEnglandandspreadtoareasthatwerecolonizedbyGreatBritainyouwenttoKingandQueentoaskforhelponcertainissuesreliefnowaspecificproblemthatyouaskforaspecificruletoresolveissueusedasatemplateforlawCustomarylawlawthatisderivedfromusagewithinsocietybroadrangefollowsthepastwaysthingsweredonetraditionIslamiclawallencompassingsystembasedonreligiouslawsourcesMixedlegalsystemsmorethanonelegalsystemoperatingsimultaneouslyexcommonandcivilCanadafollowsthisCriticismsoWhocameupwiththeselegalsystemsHammoraquioIdeasofclassificationtryingtocategorizethingsbasedonfunctionandwhatwewantlawtoachieveitmakesusthinkthatthesecategoriesalwaysexistedandthatlawscanfitintothesecategoriesLecture3ExerciseAlegalruleforbidsyoutotakeavehicleintothepublicparkPlainlythisforbidsanautomobilebutwhataboutbicyclesrollerskatestoyautomobilesWhataboutairplanesAretheseaswesaytobecalledvehiclesforthepurposeoftheruleornotHowarewegoingtoapproachthisproblemoEveryrulebookcontainsrangeofuncertaintyitscalledahardcaseoflawbecauseitdoesntfallunderaspecificruleitsnotclearowhatismorallyorethicallyrequiredtheuseofpracticalreasoningorcommonsenselookingtoobjectpurposeoftheruleHLAHartTheSeparationofLawandMorals195871HarvardLRev593LegalpositivismisthethesisthattheexistenceandcontentoflawdependsonsocialfactsandnotonitsmeritsTheEnglishjuristJohnAustin17901859formulateditthusTheexistenceoflawisonethingitsmeritanddemeritanotherWhetheritbeorbenotisoneenquirywhetheritbeorbenotconformabletoanassumedstandardisadifferentenquiry1832p157ThepositivistthesisdoesnotsaythatlawsmeritsareunintelligibleunimportantorperipheraltothephilosophyoflawItsaysthattheydonotdeterminewhetherlawsorlegalsystemsexistWhatlawsareinforceinthatsystemdependsonwhatsocialstandardsitsofficialsrecognizeasauthoritativeforexamplelegislativeenactmentsjudicialdecisionsorsocialcustoms
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