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Goodhart Midterm Definitions.docx

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LAWS 2105
Roger Rickwood

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HUMAN rights | Politics & Practice
Pg.12-24 [ch.1]
Conservatism: a political philosophy/ideology emphasizing the organic emergence of society out of
historical times. It rejects attempts to radically remold society or human nature, emphasizes continuity
and incremental change, and has a generally skeptical outlook toward the claim of either reason or
government that the human condition can be morally or substantively improved
Crime against Humanity: a deliberate widespread or systematic attack on civilians, including murder,
forced deportation, enslavement, imprisonment, torture, rape, or persecution. On the spectrum of
humanitarian offences, it is more extreme than a war crime but less extreme than genocide, which
requires the intent to destroy a group in whole or in part
Cultural Relativism: a view that holds that, because all truths are relative, cultures cannot be compared on
a moral or other normative grounds. In connection with human rights, it is the idea that human rights
standards are Western and therefore inapplicable or inappropriate outside the West
Enlightenment: the European Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, is usually said to have
started between 1660 and 1685, and to have ended with the French Revolution. The Enlightenment
philosophers believed in progress trough human reason and were critical of superstition and religion,
along with monarchial and aristocratic forms of political authority
Essentialist: the attribution of a behavior or practice to human nature or to natural human tendencies, either
generally or specifically in connection with a particular class or group or people. For instance, human
rights violations might be attributed to human evil or animosities between social groups or to specific
social or cultural factors. Consequently, this view can be deeply pessimistic about the prospects for
human rights reform
First Generation Rights: civil and political rights that protect the interests and negative liberties of the
individual against the power and encroachment of states, such as freedom of speech, religion, and
association, rights to a fair trial, and voting rights, among others. The idea of generations of rights is
controversial historically and conceptually. So-called first generation rights are codified in the UN’s
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
Foundationalism: (foundationalist) the view that any theory or principle must be justified by reference to
more basic or foundational beliefs, which are held to be self-evident or self-justifying Thus, a
foundationalist position is one that relies on an apparently self-evident claim, e.g., ‘Human frailty is a
universal experience of human existence’
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: one of the ‘twin covenants’ that forms the
backbone of the International Bill of Rights. The ICCPR tabulates in a legally binding form the first half
of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
International Convention on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: one of the ‘twin covenants that
forms the backbone of the International Bill of Rights. The ICESCR tabulates in a legally binding form
the second half of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Legal Positivism: the view that the law is separate from considerations of morality and justice. On this
view the law does not gain its legitimacy from the natural law or other ethical considerations, but from
being enacted by an appropriate institutional authority
Liberalism: a political philosophy/ideology emphasizing humans’ rational capacities, the role of
individuals in shaping social life, the harmony of individuals’ rights, freedoms, and interests, market
economics (in either classical liberal or welfare liberal strands), and democratic government (conceived
often as limited government). Freedom or liberty is the primary value that should be instantiated in
society and protected by government, in the liberal view; all individuals are equal, and their rights are to
be protected equally under the rule of law. In international relations theory the term is associated with a
variety of approaches that emphasize the role of democratic states in generating cooperation
internationally as well as the role of international institutions in generating cooperation between states
Natural Law: a moral law or code that is supposedly objective because it is built into the cosmos. Natural
law has pre-Christian antecedents, but it was the Christian version that provided the theoretical backdrop
to the emergence of the rights of man and modern human rights
Natural Rights: rights based on the natural law and justified in the first age of rights through ideas from
Christian theology. As this theology lost favour among philosophers, natural rights were argued to emerge
out of our basic humanity, rather than out of God’s natural law. But philosophers then disagreed about
how such rights should be understood to emerge out of our humanity
Nuremberg Tribunal: a series of trials held in Nuremberg, Germany by the Allies following the end of
WWII. These trials prosecuted captured German leaders for crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes
against humanity. (Similar trials were held in Tokyo before the International Military Tribunal for the Far
East.) In the most famous trial, 19 high-ranking German defendants were found guilty in 1946. The court
was the first international criminal tribunal of its kind, and is today seen as a precedent for the United
Nations ad hoc criminal tribunals and the International Criminal Court
Philosophes: a term used to describe those thinkers and authors who were active and influential during the
period of the European Enlightenment
Proletariat: a term used in Marxist theory to refer to those who are wage or salary workers. They are
people who do not have ownership of the means of production, that is, who are not part of the rule
capitalist class (the bourgeoisie)
Rights of Man: term used by Enlightenment thinkers to refer to the natural rights that they wrote into the
early rights declarations and associated literature; in its modernized form, it refers to human rights
Second Generation Rights: rights recognizing that certain basic goods should be equally available to all
people, such as basic levels of economic subsistence, education, work, housing, and health care. These
rights are often called positive rights because they require rights providers to act, rather than to refrain
from interfering. The idea of generations of rights is controversial historically and conceptually. So-called
second generation rights are codified in the UN’s International Covenant on Economic, Social, and
Cultural Rights
Socialism: a political philosophy/ideology that enjoins wholesale change in the structures of society so that
the means of production are owned by the workers or proletariat rather than by elite capitalist classes, so
that the productive power of society is used for the common good, not merely in the interests of a few.
Marxists and Communists are socialists who seek radical change to society by altering its economic base,
and have historically pursued revolutionary politics to this end
Third Generation Rights: rights concerned with the rights of minority groups such as women, Indigenous
peoples, linguistic and cultural minorities, and people of diverse sexualities, as well as environmental
rights and the right to development. The idea of generations of rights is controversial historically and
conceptually. This category of rights is not well institutionalized
Universal Declaration of Human Rights: landmark declaration adopted and proclaimed by the General
Assembly of the United Nations on 10 December 1948, it marks the dawn of the modern age of human
rights. Its 30 articles outline a wide range of civil, cultural, economic, political, and social rights, rights
subsequently codified in international law through the ICCPR and the ICESCR. The UDHR establishes ‘a
common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and
every organ of society shall strive to ensure ‘their universal and effective recognition and observance’
Utilitarian: a political philosophy/ideology of the Enlightenment, pioneered by Jeremy Bentham. It is a
consequentialist theory holding (in simplified form) that an act is morally justified if and only if it leads to
the greatest good for the greatest number
Pg.26-45 [ch.2]
Bilateral Treaties: a treaty concluded between two parties only
Cold War: the period of superpower rivalry between the USA and the USSR from the late 1940s to 1991.
The idea of ‘cold’ war indicates that the two never fought directly, despite a massive arms race and
numerous ‘hot’ proxy wars around the globe. The Cold War reflected traditional great power rivalry, as
well as an ideological clash between communism (USSR and allies) and liberal democracy and capitalism
(USA and allies). Human rights were one of the key ideological dividing lines in this conflict
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment:
(CAT) the principal international treaty outlawing torture and governing the responsibilities with regard to
the torture of states parties. It entered into force in 1987 and has been ratified by more than 140 countries
Contracting States: states that have agreed to be bound to a treaty through signature, ratification,
accession, or succession
Council of Europe: international organization founded in 1949 that seeks to promote democracy and
human rights throughout Europe. The main instrument guiding the Council’s work is the Convention for
the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights),
which came into force in 1953. The European Court of Human Rights is the primary enforcement
mechanism of the Convention. The Council presently has 47 members
Customary International Law: state practice binding on states due to a period of uniform practice based
on a sense of legal obligation
Declaration: a statement made by a state when agreeing to a treaty, which may or may not have legal
effect. Also refers to an instrument adopted by international organizations that indicates or expresses
international opinion but, unless otherwise stated in the organization’s constituent instrument, is not
legally binding
Derogation: the suspension of a state’s obligation to respect certain human rights during a time of national
emergency; it is an emergency power of limited duration
[Enforced] Disappearances: the forcible detention or abduction of people by the government (or with its
consent), followed by a refusal to disclose their whereabouts

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HUMAN rights | Politics & Practice  Pg.12­24 [ch.1] • Conservatism: a political philosophy/ideology emphasizing the organic emergence of society out of  historical times. It rejects attempts to radically remold society or human nature, emphasizes continuity  and incremental change, and has a generally skeptical outlook toward the claim of either reason or  government that the human condition can be morally or substantively improved • Crime against Humanity: a deliberate widespread or systematic attack on civilians, including murder,  forced deportation, enslavement, imprisonment, torture, rape, or persecution. On the spectrum of  humanitarian offences, it is more extreme than a war crime but less extreme than genocide, which  requires the intent to destroy a group in whole or in part • Cultural Relativism: a view that holds that, because all truths are relative, cultures cannot be compared on  a moral or other normative grounds. In connection with human rights, it is the idea that human rights  standards are Western and therefore inapplicable or inappropriate outside the West • Enlightenment: the European Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, is usually said to have  started between 1660 and 1685, and to have ended with the French Revolution. The Enlightenment  philosophers believed in progress trough human reason and were critical of superstition and religion,  along with monarchial and aristocratic forms of political authority  • Essentialist: the attribution of a behavior or practice to human nature or to natural human tendencies, either  generally or specifically in connection with a particular class or group or people. For instance, human  rights violations might be attributed to human evil or animosities between social groups or to specific  social or cultural factors. Consequently, this view can be deeply pessimistic about the prospects for  human rights reform • First Generation Rights: civil and political rights that protect the interests and negative liberties of the  individual against the power and encroachment of states, such as freedom of speech, religion, and  association, rights to a fair trial, and voting rights, among others. The idea of generations of rights is  controversial historically and conceptually. So­called first generation rights are codified in the UN’s  International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.  • Foundationalism: (foundationalist) the view that any theory or principle must be justified by reference to  more basic or foundational beliefs, which are held to be self­evident or self­justifying Thus, a  foundationalist position is one that relies on an apparently self­evident claim, e.g., ‘Human frailty is a  universal experience of human existence’ • International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights: one of the ‘twin covenants’ that forms the  backbone of the International Bill of Rights. The ICCPR tabulates in a legally binding form the first half  of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights • International Convention on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: one of the ‘twin covenants’ that  forms the backbone of the International Bill of Rights. The ICESCR tabulates in a legally binding form  the second half of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights • Legal Positivism: the view that the law is separate from considerations of morality and justice. On this  view the law does not gain its legitimacy from the natural law or other ethical considerations, but from  being enacted by an appropriate institutional authority • Liberalism: a political philosophy/ideology emphasizing humans’ rational capacities, the role of  individuals in shaping social life, the harmony of individuals’ rights, freedoms, and interests, market  economics (in either classical liberal or welfare liberal strands), and democratic government (conceived  often as limited government). Freedom or liberty is the primary value that should be instantiated in  society and protected by government, in the liberal view; all individuals are equal, and their rights are to  be protected equally under the rule of law. In international relations theory the term is associated with a  variety of approaches that emphasize the role of democratic states in generating cooperation  internationally as well as the role of international institutions in generating cooperation between states • Natural Law: a moral law or code that is supposedly objective because it is built into the cosmos. Natural  law has pre­Christian antecedents, but it was the Christian version that provided the theoretical backdrop  to the emergence of the rights of man and modern human rights • Natural Rights: rights based on the natural law and justified in the first age of rights through ideas from  Christian theology. As this theology lost favour among philosophers, natural rights were argued to emerge  out of our basic humanity, rather than out of God’s natural law. But philosophers then disagreed about  how such rights should be understood to emerge out of our humanity  • Nuremberg Tribunal: a series of trials held in Nuremberg, Germany by the Allies following the end of  WWII. These trials prosecuted captured German leaders for crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes  against humanity. (Similar trials were held in Tokyo before the International Military Tribunal for the Far  East.) In the most famous trial, 19 high­ranking German defendants were found guilty in 1946. The court  was the first international criminal tribunal of its kind, and is today seen as a precedent for the United  Nations ad hoc criminal tribunals and the International Criminal Court  • Philosophes: a term used to describe those thinkers and authors who were active and influential during the  period of the European Enlightenment • Proletariat: a term used in Marxist theory to refer to those who are wage or salary workers. They are  people who do not have ownership of the means of production, that is, who are not part of the rule  capitalist class (the bourgeoisie) • Rights of Man: term used by Enlightenment thinkers to refer to the natural rights that they wrote into the  early rights declarations and associated literature; in its modernized form, it refers to human rights • Second Generation Rights: rights recognizing that certain basic goods should be equally available to all  people, such as basic levels of economic subsistence, education, work, housing, and health care. These  rights are often called positive rights because they require rights providers to act, rather than to refrain  from interfering. The idea of generations of rights is controversial historically and conceptually. So­called  second generation rights are codified in the UN’s International Covenant on Economic, Social, and  Cultural Rights • Socialism: a political philosophy/ideology that enjoins wholesale change in the structures of society so that  the means of production are owned by the workers or proletariat rather than by elite capitalist classes, so  that the productive power of society is used for the common good, not merely in the interests of a few.  Marxists and Communists are socialists who seek radical change to society by altering its economic base,  and have historically pursued revolutionary politics to this end • Third Generation Rights: rights concerned with the rights of minority groups such as women, Indigenous  peoples, linguistic and cultural minorities, and people of diverse sexualities, as well as environmental  rights and the right to development. The idea of generations of rights is controversial historically and  conceptually. This category of rights is not well institutionalized • Universal Declaration of Human Rights: landmark declaration adopted and proclaimed by the General  Assembly of the United Nations on 10 December 1948, it marks the dawn of the modern age of human  rights. Its 30 articles outline a wide range of civil, cultural, economic, political, and social rights, rights  subsequently codified in international law through the ICCPR and the ICESCR. The UDHR establishes ‘a  common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and  every organ of society’ shall strive to ensure ‘their universal and effective recognition and observance’ • Utilitarian: a political philosophy/ideology of the Enlightenment, pioneered by Jeremy Bentham. It is a  consequentialist theory holding (in simplified form) that an act is morally justified if and only if it leads to  the greatest good for the greatest number  Pg.26­45 [ch.2] • Bilateral Treaties: a treaty concluded between two parties only • Cold War: the period of superpower rivalry between the USA and the USSR from the late 1940s to 1991.  The idea of ‘cold’ war indicates that the two never fought directly, despite a massive arms race and  numerous ‘hot’ proxy wars around the globe. The Cold War reflected traditional great power rivalry, as  well as an ideological clash between communism (USSR and allies) and liberal democracy and capitalism  (USA and allies). Human rights were one of the key ideological dividing lines in this conflict • Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhumane, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment:  (CAT) the principal international treaty outlawing torture and governing the responsibilities with regard to  the torture of states parties. It entered into force in 1987 and has been ratified by more than 140 countries • Contracting States: states that have agreed to be bound to a treaty through signature, ratification,  accession, or succession • Council of Europe: international organization founded in 1949 that seeks to promote democracy and  human rights throughout Europe. The main instrument guiding the Council’s work is the Convention for  the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights),  which came into force in 1953. The European Court of Human Rights is the primary enforcement  mechanism of the Convention. The Council presently has 47 members • Customary International Law: state practice binding on states due to a period of uniform practice based  on a sense of legal obligation • Declaration: a statement made by a state when agreeing to a treaty, which may or may not have legal  effect. Also refers to an instrument adopted by international organizations that indicates or expresses  international opinion but, unless otherwise stated in the organization’s constituent instrument, is not  legally binding • Derogation: the suspension of a state’s obligation to respect certain human rights during a time of national  emergency; it is an emergency power of limited duration • [Enforced] Disappearances: the forcible detention or abduction of people by the government (or with its  consent), followed by a refusal to disclose their whereabouts • European Court of Human Rights: the primary enforcement mechanism of the Convention for the  Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (European Convention on Human Rights),  which came into force in 1953. It is widely recognized as being the most evolved supranational  mechanism for human rights enforcement. The Court took on its present form through changes  implemented with Protocol No. 11 to the Convention, which came into force in 1998 • Geneva Conventions and Protocols: the Geneva Conventions are 4 treaties, the first of which was  adopted as an international conference in 1864 that set international; legal standards regarding  humanitarian matters, especially concerning the treatment of non­combatants and prisoners of war during  wartime. The Geneva Conventions are the foundation of modern humanitarian law and have since been  expanded • Genocide: as defined by the 1948 UN Convention on the Punishment and Prevention of the Crime of  Genocide, is a crime under international law compromising acts ‘committed with intent to destroy, in  whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group, as such.’ • Human Rights Council: (HRC) The UN human rights body established by General Assembly Resolution  60/251 in 2006. The Council replaced the Commission on Human Rights • Humanitarian Law: refers both to laws, such as the Geneva Convention and Protocols, governing the  conduct of war (in Latin, jus ad bello), and laws concerning the circumstances under which war is  justified (in Latin, jus ad bellum). Sometimes called the ‘laws of war’.  • International Court of Justice: (IJC or World Court) the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.  The only permanent international court with competence to hear the state disputes (brought with the  consent of both parties) • International Criminal Court: (ICC) permanent court created by the Rome Treaty (1998) and established  in 2002 with jurisdiction to prosecute individuals who have allegedly perpetrated crimes listed in the  1998 Statue of the International Criminal Court. Cases can be referred to the Office of the Prosecutor by  the state itself (e.g. Uganda) or by the Security Council (e.g. Sudan)   • International Labour Organization: (ILO) international organization established in 1919; now a  specialized agency of the United Nations, with primary responsibility for addressing issues of workers  rights and social justice. The ILO adopts many treaties and recommendations on labour and related  matters • League of Nations: an international organization created after WWI by the Treaty of Versailles. Its goal  was to prevent war from happening again. It had some success in the 1920s, but was ultimately unable to  withstand the aggression of the Axis powers in the 1930s. After WWII it was replaced by the United  Nations • Multilateral Treaties: treaty concluded between more than two parties or a treaty concluded by two parties  but open to a large group of states to ratify  • Ratification: practice of agreeing to the terms of a treaty (in accordance with constitutional national law) to  enable it to be enforced • Reparations: a range of remedies available for a breach of international law; term used variously to denote  monetary compensation (narrow definition) or to include non­monetary damages (broader definition) • Reservation: a unilateral exemption from specified parts a treaty by a states party, usually submitted on  ratification • Soft Law: instruments that are not, strictly speaking, legally binding but that nevertheless may influence  state behavior, e.g. a declaration • State Parties: “contracting  states” – states that have agreed to be bound to a treaty through  signature, ratification, accession, or succession  • Transitional Justice: a process of helping societies deal with the difficult questions of justice that arise as a  society moves from war to peace, or from a repressive or authoritarian regime to democracy. It focuses  particularly on social, political, and economic institutions and on addressing past wrongs and on roles for  former combatants. It may be carried our by some means of retributive, restorative, or reparative justice,  or some combination of these.  • Treaty: binding written agreement concluded between states • Universal Jurisdiction: the legal doctrine that certain crimes are so grave that any/all may prosecute  individuals allegedly perpetrating these crimes, irrespective of the existence of any connection to the state  seeking to prosecute. Crimes claimed to fall within this jurisdiction include genocide, slavery, and war  crimes.   Pg.129­146 [ch.8] • Civil Rights Act: the seminal law passed by the US Congress in 1964 banning segregation in employment,  public schools, and public places • Disaggregation: an effort to break larger analytic units into smaller ones for the purposes of more careful  analysis. For instance, one might look at states rather than the federal government in federal polities or at  different branches of government rather than government as a whole • Freedom Riders: Freedom Riders were a group of activists, generally from the northern USA, who  travelled to the south in an effort to challenge discriminatory laws mandating segregation in public  transportation across state lines • Impunity: exemption from punishment. Often refers specifically to the status of known human rights  violators who are not prosecuted or otherwise brought to justice • Polity Index: this is a data collection effort pioneered by Ted Gurr that attempts to measure diverse  political characteristics of governmental authority on a range of indicators. It focuses on governing  institutions rather than discreet and mutually exclusive forms of governance. The index conceives of  governmental authority on a spectrum ranging from fully institutionalized autocracy to fully  institutionalized democracy using a 21­point scale. The index is used to identify three regime types:  autocracies (scores of ­10 to ­6), ‘anocracies’ (­5 to +5, plus special values), and democracies (+6 to +10) • Quantitative: quantitative studies are empirical research studies that rely on statistical techniques for the  analysis and interpretation of data (typi
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