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HISTORY notes for Final Exam

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MUSI 1001
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  04/23/2014 Form Strophic form The most familiar musical form The basic musical unit (A) is repeated over and over again: A A A Used for hymns, carols, folk songs and patriotic songs The music repeats for each stanza of text The musical unit, or melody, is subdivided into phrases Theme and Variations Each repetition of the melody is varied in some manner (Intro CD 24) Melodic embellishment New harmony Rhythmic alterations Changes in colour and texture Variations: A – A1 – A2 – A3 – A4 Using the same melodic outline, and adding passing notes, etc. Binary Form Two contrasting units: A & B Balance and compliment each other Variety obtained by a dissimilar mood, key or melody A & B often repeated 1 Aural result is A A B B Use of repetition symbols |:A:| |:B:|| Haydn symphony 94 “Surprise” II Adante (0:50) Ternary Form: Three sections: A B A B section in a contrasting section Change in melody and key Rhythmic changes Usually a change in color Third section, A, repeats the opening section Tchaikovsky: “Dance of the Reeds” Rondo Form: A refrain alternates with contrasting music One of the oldest musical forms Simple in style Three major patterns: A B A B A A B A C A 2 A B A C A B A Opening and closing statements of A are often played twice Dissonance: • Chords that sound discordant, tense, and unstable • Provides harmonic momentum to a consonance Medieval Music • Melody o Mostly conjunct motion o Narrow range o Scales use diatonic, not chromatic notes Rhythm Gregorian chant and early secular songs Sung in rhythmic values determined by text No clearly marked rhythms or meter Polyphonic compositions (after 1180) Mostly in triple meter Uses repeated rhythmic patterns (rhythmic modes) Harmony Most surviving music is monophonic 3 Polyphonic compositions Can have dissonant sonorities within phrases Phrases end with open unisons, octaves or fifths Colour Vocal music predominates Little instrumental music survives: Medieval instruments different from those used in modern orchestras Some are ancestors of modern instruments, others became extinct Unique sound qualities Texture Most music is monophonic Surviving polyphonic compositions written in non-imitative counterpoint Gregorian Chant – also known as plainsong • Named in honor of Pope Gregory (reigned 590-604) o Important administrative abilities o Organized charts according to liturgical calendar o Not a musician: wrote few, if any, chants o Replaced numerous regional chant practices (Sarum: Celtic Areas; Mozaratic: Iberia; Ambrosian: Milan) Definition: Unaccompanied vocal music 4 Sacred Latin text Composed for use in religious services in the church and Monastery Written over the course of 15 centuries Rhythm: No meter or regular rhythms Encourage pious reflection Sung in unison (monophony) Generally no instrumental accompaniment Soloists can alternate with unison choir Text can be set in a syllabic or melismatic style Individual composers of this vast body of music are generally unknown - The ending passage returns to the first style of the setting Medieval Secular Music Vocal Troubadors (Trobairitz) Active in southern France Wrote vernacular poetry generally about love, and set the lyrics to music Often accompanied by instruments Instrumental acc. Not written down, very little survivors Performers from all classes of society 5 Countess of Dia: A Chantar m’er (c.1775) Trouveres and Minnesingers Active somewhat later in northern France and Germany Began to mix the traditions of the troubadours with the style of sacred polyphonic music Resulted in the polyphonic chanson Many composers, including Machaut, adopted this style Instrumental Primarily used to accompany dancing Instruments divided into two groups Hauts Loud instruments Included the sackbut, shawm, cornetto and drums Bas Soft instruments Included flute, recorder, harp, lute and many others 6 Renaissance Era 04/23/2014 Renaissance Era • Time frame o The intellectual and artistic activity began in Italy around 1350 and spread to northern Europe o Musical developments did not begin until 1475 Renaissance: rebirth, remaking Renaissance thinkers derived inspiration from the cultural heritage of ancient Greece and Rome Valued personal achievement, intellectual independence, and discovery Humanism A philosophical perspective different from the medieval period Emphasis on human worth, creativity, and the capacity to shape society Rhetoric (judicial, deliberative, epideictic) deeply informs the arts Melody Stepwise (conjunct) motion within a moderately narrow range Diatonic, but some chromaticism in madrigals Harmony Not as much dissonance as in medieval music The consonant triad becomes the basic building block of harmony Rhythm Duple meter now as common as triple meter Rhythm in sacred music is relaxed and without strong downbeats Rhythm in secular music (vocal and instrumental) is lively, with frequent use of syncopation 7 Renaissance Era 04/23/2014 Color More instrumental music has survived than from the Middle Ages Unaccompanied vocal music remains the predominant sound Texture Polyphonic texture for four or five vocal lines is standard Imitative counterpoint predominates Passages of chordal homophonic texture are inserted for variety • Motet o Definition:  Composition for a choir Latin text on sacred subject  • Texts were more vivid than those for the Mass • Often drawn from the Old Testament, especially from the Psalms • Vivid texts resulted in an equally dramatic musical setting Sung acapella Performed in either church, chapel, or at home in private devotion The Madrigal Genre began in Italy, but was soon popular in northern Europe, especially England Definition: A composition for several solo voices 8 Renaissance Era 04/23/2014 Normally 4-5 voices Men and women could sing these together, a practice not allowed in sacred music Sung acapella Most intended for performance by amateur musicians Text a secular poem, usually about love, in a vernacular language Vivid musical imagery of the text important Result was that many different moods and styles existed within a single composition Magrigalisms (hypotyposis, or word painting) sought to produce a musical gesture that exactly correspond to the meaning of the word 9 Early Baroque  The Baroque Aesthetic Massive scale and complex themes Overabundance of small, decorative details Vigorous energy Emphasis on emotions; affect: humeral view of body/mind relationship – often to the point of exaggeration and distortion The emergence of opera music More instrumental music Detail in art, also more detailed music More rhythm • Melody o Less stepwise movement than in Renaissance melodies o Larger leaps, wider range and chromaticism reflect influence of virtuosic solo singing o Melodic patterns idiomatic to particular musical instruments emerge o Introduction of melodic sequence o Repetition of a musical motive at successively higher or lower pitches o First appears in Baroque music, but continues to be a standard melodic procedure Harmony Stable, diatonic chords played by basso continuo support melody Clearly defined chord progressions begin to develop 10 Early Baroque  Tonality reduced to major and minor keys Rhythm Relaxed, flexible rhythms of the Renaissance transformed into often motoric driving rhythms Color Musical timbre becomes enormously varied Traditional instruments (e.g. harpsichord, violin and oboe) are performed New combinations of voices and instruments are explored Orchestration/instrumentation becomes more explicit and fixed at the compositional stage Dynamics Symphony orchestra begins to take shape Sudden shifts in dynamics (terraced dynamics) reflect dramatic quality of Baroque music Texture Chordal, homophonic texture predominates Top and bottom lines are strongest Basso continuo supports the melody above Basso Ostinato: bass repeating pattern Form Arias and instrumental works often make use of basso ostinato procedure Ritornello (repetition of phrases; ABABA) form emerges in the concerto grosso Binary form regulates most movements of the sonata and orchestral suite Early Baroque Vocal Music 11 Early Baroque  • Definition o Literally means “work” o A dramatic work in which the actors sing some or all of their parts o Usually makes use of elaborate stage sets and costumes Emerged in the northern Italian cities of Florence, Mantua and Venice First promoted by group of humanist thinkers called the Florentine Camerata An attempt to recreate the style of ancient Greek drama Opera: Purpose: secular entertainment Performance location: theatre Performance style: fully dramatized (staging, costumes, etc.) Subject: classical mythology, ancient history Accompaniment: orchestra Repeated bass line provides a solid foundation Technique a common feature of Baroque music Often used to symbolize grief Late Baroque Aesthetic More about refinement rather than new creations 12 Early Baroque  Late Baroque Musical Style Melody Principle of continuing development Long, expansive and irregular phrases Melodic sequence Bach: D-minor intervention Rhythm The most distinctive and exciting element of Baroque Music. Strong, recognizable sense of meter Texture: Return of counterpoint Modern symphony orchestra emerges Rarely more than 25 players Strings form the core of the ensemble Violins replace violas Multiple string players on each part Oboes or flutes, bassoon Brasses: Trumpet or French Horn, both instruments usually played by one musician Percussion: Rarely used in Baroque music, parts were not written out (improve, whack away on it). Basso continuo still essential 13 Early Baroque  Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) Reputation During his lifetime known more as a great organist than as a composer. Brought the cantata to the highest point of development. The greatest composer of contrapuntal music in the history of western music. Example of a modern improviser in the baroque style George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) Reputation Reputation continued to increase after his death. Scholars such as William Weber argue that the English canon largely formed around Handel. 14 Early Baroque  15 The Baroque Sonata • A genre of instrumental chamber music • A collection of short movements o Movement: an independent section of a larger instrumental work o Most sonatas consisted of 4-6 movements o Each movement had a dance-like character  Allemand, sarabande, gavotte, and gigue were favored dances  Played as concert music, the audience did not dance; stylized dance music Two common ways to designate sonatas By number of performers Solo sonata: a soloist and the two performers required for the basso continuo Trio sonata; consists of bass line, melody #1 and melody #2 Required 4 players: Basso Continuo By performance location Sonata de camera (chamber sonata) Performed in residential settings Movements bore the name and character of a particular dance Sonata de chiesa (church sonata) Performed during a church service Movements not designed by tempo markings Considered inappropriate to play secular dance in church 16 Compositions often bore both designations A solo sonata could also be a sonata de camera or sonata de chiesa A trio sonata could also be a sonata de camera or de chiesa The Baroque Concerto A composition marked by a friendly contest or competition between a soloist and an orchestra Solo concerto: one soloist and an orchestra Concerto grosso: a small group of soloists (usually 2-4) and an orchestra Soloists called the “concertino”/little concert Normally the first chair players Played in a more virtuosic style Orchestra called “tutti”/everybody Typically consists of three movements: fast, slow, fast First movement: Serious in tone Ritornello form Second: Slow, lyrical Free form Third: Dance oriented 17 Ritornello form Ritornello Form: Means return, refrain Characteristics: All or part of a main theme returns throughout the movement Ritornello theme(s) played by the tutti Concertio inserts virtuosic passages in between statements of the ritornello There can be any number of alterations between ritornellos statements and solo sections Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Career: A virtuoso violinist who gave concerts throughout Europe A noted teacher Taught music lessons and conducted the orchestra for many years Ultimately became its music director Composed hundreds of solo concertos for the all female orchestra First published in 1725 but probably composed between 1715 and 1720 A sonnet accompanies each concerto Provides a precise interpretation of the event or emotion Vivaldi wrote the poem first and then composed the music (mimesis) Imitates weather 18 Classical Period 04/23/2014 Aesthetic Proportion and Balance Inspired by philogical and archeological research into the cultures of classical antiquity Illustrated in the period’s architecture, painting and music Simplicity of line, austerity, absence of excessive ornamentation Enlightenment Also known as the age of reason Pursuit of truth and discovery of natural laws Scientific advances Social justice, equality, tolerance, freedom of speech Voltaire and Rousseau important writers and philosophers The Age of Reason ultimately gave way to the Age of Revolution Musical Manifestations of Social Change Comic Opera (opera buffa) Opera of the middle class Librettos punctured the arrogance of the nobility Public Concerts Classical music generally moved from the palace to the concert hall Supported by the middle class who now became consumers of a commodified musical culture The Piano New keyboard instrument that replaced the harpsichord 19 Classical Period 04/23/2014 Invented around 1700 Could produce dynamic contrasts Played by amateurs, especially women Classical Style in Music Melody Antecedent and consequent phrases The second phrase that brings the melody to a point of response and closure Typical features Phrases normally employ similar rhythms and motivic gestures Phrase shapes typically balance each other One phrase completes another, and so on Short and simple melodies More influenced by vocal than instrumental style Frequent cadences Harmony Irregular rate of harmonic change Often changes more rapidly at cadences Creates fluid, flexible harmonic rhythm Simple chords Alberti bass 20 Classical Period 04/23/2014 Enlivens a passage of static harmony Named after Domenico Alberti (1710-1740) Rhythm Departs from the regular driving patterns of the Baroque era Greater rhythmic variety within a single movement Texture Mostly homophonic; the texture of choice Light and transparent Not complicated More natural and simple Counterpoint used sparingly and mainly for contrast Counterpoint remains a feature of liturgical music Color Orchestra increases in size; fifty to sixty musicians Strings Remains the core of the orchestral sound Metal strings replace those of gut; a lot louder and richer sound Woodwinds Full woodwind ensemble standard Flute Oboe 21 Classical Period 04/23/2014 Clarinet A new instrument, invented around 1710 Mozart first heard it in 1778 Bassoon Orchestras included pairs of each instrument Brasses: only French horns or trumpets Percussion only included on special occasions Form A few standard forms regulate much of classical music Classical Composers: Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn, etc. Worked in Vienna, Italy Vienna: Importance: The capital city of the old Holy Roman Empire The administrative center for the Austrian Empire The cultural crossroads for Central Europe Fourth largest city in Europe Importance of music: Aristocracy patronized musicians including Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven 22 Classical Period 04/23/2014 Collectively created the Viennese Classical style Many amateur performers Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) Most of life spent in Austria Trained as a choirboy at St. Stephen’s Cathedral Freelance musician during the 1750’s Worked for the Esterhazy family, 1761-1790 Conductor of the prince’s personal orchestra Audience was typically limited to the prince and his staff Composed music according to the order of “His serene highness” Wrote symphonies, operas, Masses, and chamber music Haydn’s compositions were ‘owned’ by the prince; lack of creative freedom Pirated copies circulated throughout northern Europe A later contract allowed Haydn to sell his compositions Used a Baryton frequently: frets, 6 strings, bow, pluck strings with thumb behind the neck, tailored to the key Finds great success in London 1791-1792, 1794-1795 Offered a substantial fee; in the billions in modern terms Composed his 12 London symphonies Received an honorary degree from Oxford University Reputation: one of the most influential creators of the mature classical style String quartet his innovation 23 Classical Period 04/23/2014 First composer to use theme and variations form in the symphony Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1758-1791) “The human incarnation of a divine force of creation” – Goethe A joker, loved to booze and laugh Born in Salzburg, Austria Musical family His father, Leopold was one of Europe’s leading violin educators in Europe Displayed extraordinary musical talent at an early age The most famous child prodigy in history Toured throughout his childhood and adolescence Traveled throughout northern Europe and Italy Played before royalty and the aristocracy Met many musicians Purpose Initially to display the miraculous genius of Mozart and his sister To acquire fame and fortune Result: Exposed to a wealth of musical styles Increased the breadth and substance of his music Never found a successful patronage position Moved to Vienna, 1781 24 Classical Period 04/23/2014 Worked as a freelance musician Reached the peak of his success between 1785 – 1787 His music lost some popularity during the final years of the decade Considered too dense and dissonant Ticket sales for his concerts dropped Nonetheless, recent scholarship indicates that he was still reasonably well-off. Last years Plagued by ill health and financial difficulties Left a Requiem Mass unfinished at his death Reputation Among one of the greatest musical genius of the western world Compositions display diversity, breadth of expression, and perfect formal control that is only matched by the works of J.S. Bach Changing patronage and a new concept of the artist The careers of Haydn and Mozart represent a major shift in musical patronage Most of Haydn’s professional life was marked by servitude to a single patron (the Esterhazy’s) Mozart and composers that follow was largely free agents Financial success is increasingly determined by audience demand 25 Chapter 14 *Not on midterm* 04/23/2014 Classical Forms: Ternary and Sonata-Allegro Ternary form: • Minuet and Trio o History  Minuet is a genre of dance, not a musical form • Character: o Elegant o Stately tempo o Triple meter; waltz Organized in court of Louis XVI (1643-1715) Typically in binary form (AB) in the baroque Classical era Minuet: ternary form Typical Use: Minuet-Trio-Minuet Creates a ternary form (ABA) Resulted in a miniature ternary form within each section of the larger ternary form A (minuet) - |: A :||: BA:| B (trio) - |: C :||:DC:| A (minuet): ABA Mozart: A little night music Genre: serenade 26 Chapter 14 *Not on midterm* 04/23/2014 A light, multi-movement piece for strings or small orchestra Intended for public entertainment Often performed outdoors Frequently commissioned for a specific occasion Serenade: composed during the summer of 1787 Purpose for which he wrote this is unknown One of his most popular compositions Four movements: st 1 : fast (sonata-allegro) 2 : slow (rondo) rd 3 : minuet and trio (ternary) 4 : fast (rondo) > Eine Kleine Nachtmusik III Sonata-Allegro Form • The only form to originate during the Classical period • Came into being in 1750 • Made it possible to incorporate drama and conflict within single movement o Potential for dramatic presentation, conflict, and resolution o The musical drama can play out in any number of individual ways The standard first movement form in the era’s instrumental compositions 27 Chapter 14 *Not on midterm* 04/23/2014 Three Major Sections: Exposition: Presents or exposes the main thematic material of the movement together Principal idea is the opposition and blending of two contrasting themes o First theme A distinctive and memorable musical idea Variable length Usually played twice Always in the tonic key Transition (bridge) Consists of rapidly moving scales, arpeggios and melodic sequences Active bass line and rapid chord changes Cadence generally followed by a brief pause Modulates to the dominant Second theme A distinctive and memorable musical idea Theme generally in a contrasting mood from the first theme Usually played twice Harmony is stable in the dominant key Closing theme Normally characterized by a light, carefree style 28 Chapter 14 *Not on midterm* 04/23/2014 To signal the end of the exposition, cadences become more frequent Remains in the dominant key Exposition almost always repeated Development: Thematic material from the exposition worked out (developed) Any theme(s) from the exposition may be utilized Themes may occur in any order Often includes contrapuntal treatment of themes (fugato) Frequent use of melodic and harmonic sequences to effect modulations Retransition often has a pedal point on the dominant note Recapitulation: Themes return in original order, but generally a condensed form All themes remain in the tonic key Retransition theme substantially modified to avoid modulation Two optional sections Introduction: Slow tempo, impressive character Ominous or puzzling chords Never repeated Coda: Added at the end of the movement, generally after all the other themes have been heard Variable in length and content, from a quick cadential conclusion to presenting and developing new motives Provides a string of cadences to emphasize the conclusion of the movement 29 Classical Forms: Themes and Variations and Rondo • A simple theme that is continually altered 30 Classical Forms: Themes and Variations and Rondo o Each variation is provided with a different treatment of the theme o Become progressively more complicated Standard methods of variation Melodic variation Ornamentation and figured (scalar) patterns Adding a contrapuntal melody Changing the timbre of the melody More radical transformations Rhythmic alteration Harmony: changing the mode (major-minor/minor-major) Creating a new melody based on the original harmony (character variations) Haydn: Symphony 94, II. Rondo Form: • One of the oldest musical forms o Dates back to the Middle Ages o Similar to the Baroque ritornello form One of the easiest to hear because a single, unvaried refrain continually returns Typical patterns 5 part rondo form: ABACA 31 Classical Forms: Themes and Variations and Rondo 7 part rondo form: ABACABA or ABACADA Can be combined with elements of sonata form and called sonata rondo Haydn: Trumpet concerto in E-flat (1796) Trumpets were originally “natural” No valves or keys like modern trumpets Difficult to play and intonate (play in tune) Notes outside of the octave and fifth played by over blowing Haydn wrote this concerto for Anton Weidinger (1767-1852) the person who invented the keyed trumpet Not successful and players returned to the “natural” trumpet until 1835 Haydn trumpet concerto in E flat, III MVT 32 Classical Genres 04/23/2014 The Symphony Origin: Traces back to the sinfonia The overture to late Baroque Italian Operas Three sections: fast-slow-fast From sinfonia to symphony Sinfonia began to be performed apart from operas Sections expanded into movements Northern European composers added a fourth movement Minuet and Trio Became fast-slow-minuet-fast Performance: Rise in genre’s popularity tied to growth of public concerts Larger halls and larger audience necessitated a larger, more colorful orchestra Prince Esterhazy’s orchestra was ever larger than 25 musicians Public concerts required ensembles of 50-60 and sometimes more Mozart: Symphony no. 40 in G minor Composition Symphonies 39,40 and 41 were composed in a six-week period Written during the summer of 1788 Style conveys an introspective mood of tragedy and despair – influenced by the Sturm und Drang movement of the 1760’s-erly 70’s 33 Classical Genres 04/23/2014 Falling half step used throughout the history of music to suggest pain and suffering Omits the trumpets and drums that would suggest a more festive work Mood Not related to a specific biographical event Invokes the “tragic” muse A more generalized statement Based on a lifetime of experiences and a premonition of early death Sonata-allegro form First performed in a casino The String Quartet Composed for 2 violins, viola and cello A genre of chamber music One person per part No conductor, performers function equally and communicate directly among themselves The most historically important genre of chamber music Genre created by Haydn Known as the father of the string quartet Four movements: fast-slow-minuet-fast Scherzos replace minuet in some quartets 34 Classical Genres 04/23/2014 Italian for joke High-spirited style Performance Location Small concert hall Private home Could be performed by amateur or professional musicians Audience Typically a small, intimate group Often played for by the performers of their own pleasure, without an audience. Haydn: Opus 76, No.3, the “Emperor” Quartet Composed quartet during the summer of 1797 Known as the “Emperor” Melody composed in January 1797: response to military and political events (Napoleon invaded Austrian empire, 1796) Text honored Emperor Franz II, first sung on his birthday, February 12, 1797 The Sonata Performance Location NOT intended for public concert halls 35 Classical Genres 04/23/2014 Played in homes as musical entertainment Performers Most often played by amateur musicians Considered part of the essential training for the daughters of the bourgeoisie Many sonatas were works designed to improve piano technique Professional musicians also played sonatas, but rarely in public concert halls prior to the romantic era The Concerto: Double exposition form A modification of sonata-allegro form Orchestra plays first exposition Plays first theme, transition theme optional – second theme, and closing theme All themes remain in the tonic key Soloist plays the second exposition Themes often ornamented slightly Transition theme moves to the dominant Soloist often intrudes as new theme in the exposition Orchestra accompanies the soloist Development Conversational presentation of thematic material between soloist and orchestra Often focuses more on modulation than thematic development 36 Classical Genres 04/23/2014 Recapitulation Continues the dialogue style of the development Often improvisatory Based on themes from the movement
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