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Music Exam Review.doc

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MUSI 1002
Alyssa Woods

Music Exam Review Social Constructionalism : • Social construction of gender difference believes that gender is socially constructed.Social constructionism of gender moves away from socialization as the origin of gender differences; people do not merely internalize gender roles as they grow up but they respond to changing norms in society. Social Constructionalism means that it is LEARNED. Essentialism is BIOLOGICAL. Race and Gender in Music : Hegemonic Masculinity : • Aparticular type of masculinity that is oriented towards strength, power, and dominance. It is the ideal type of masculinity. • Basically, Hegemonic Masculinity refers to a culturally-normative ideal of male behaviour • Features include: aggressiveness, courage, strength, self-control, emotional reserve, rationality, independence, self-reliance, autonomy, individuality and sexual potency • Hegemonic Masculinity does not consist of the following: passivity, timidity, fragility, delicateness, expressiveness, frailty, emotionality, needfulness, dependence, humility, innocence and receptivity. McRobbie + Firth : • Keeping in mind that accounts of pop as artificial and rock as authentic reflect gender hierarchies and that pop is associated with women and rock with men, Firth and McRobbie wrote about the differences in Cock Rock versus Teeny Bop. They associated Rock with being Active and Teeny Bop as being Passive. Cyndie Lauper vs Madonna : • At first, Madonna was considered very superficial compared to Cyndi Lauper in the early 1980s. Songs that can be cross referenced from this time are Cyndi Laupers “Girls Just Want to Have Fun” and “She Bop” compared to Madonna's “Like a Virgin” and “Material Girl” • This definition of authenticity (authors intent and originality) was later debated about. Madonna was seen as being engaged with politics of play (basically the freeing and reconstitution of ones identity) • The question of whether Madonna's music, videos and persona reflect feminist ideals can be researched through her songs “Vogue” , “Open your Heart”, and “Justify my Love” Hyperdermic Syringe Model : • This was an early model that outlined the concept that the audience would accept the message they receive because they had no alternative source of opinion (“brainwashed” by the media ; hence the name “syringe” , being injected with a message) Relation between Text andAudience • The two way text audience relationship states : ◦ Atext may be structured in a particular way, but it may be decoded by the audience in ways not necessarily determined by the text itself (meaning people may understand a text in a way that the text didn't mean to be understood in) ◦ It also states that there is fluid interaction between a text, its production and its reception Cultivation Analysis (Moral Panic) : • Studies the long-term effects of the media on forms of behaviour and attributes • (According to Wikipedia so that we have some background information ) : ◦ Cultivation theory is a social theory which examines the long-term effects of television (or media in general). "The primary proposition of cultivation theory states that the more time people spend “living” in the television world. The more likely they are to believe social reality portrayed on television." Subcultures : • Subcultures can be broadly understood as social groups organized around shared interests and practices • Subcultures typically set themselves against the larger social group. • There are 2 components of sub-cultural lives ◦ Plastic ( dress and music ) ◦ Infrastructural (ritual) • Dick Hebdige ( a media theorist) said : ◦ “there is a symbolic fit between the values and lifestyles of a group, its subjective experience and the music forms it uses to express or reinforce its focal concerns” Disco and Punk (Compare with Politics and Subculture) : • Disco ◦ Can be defined as a musical style, performance s
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