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Midterm

Pharmacology midterm 1.docx

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Department
Neuroscience
Course
NEUR 3204
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Pharmacology drug action in organism neuropharmacology study of drug induced changes in NS cell functioning looking at chemical agentspsychopharamocology drug induced changes in mood thinking behaviourNeuropsychopharamocology chemical substance acts on NS to alter behaviourNucleus accumbens important in addictions dopamine centreDrug action Molecular changes produced by drug when binding to target sitereceptor Molecular changes alter physiopsych functions called drug effects Drug always have same action but causes different effects Site of action may be different from site of drug effectsDrugs can act at several target sites and have multiple effects Therapeutic effects drugreceptor interaction produces desired physicalbehavioural changes Based on response of 50 All other effectsside effects Specific drug effects based on physicalbiochem interactions of drug with target site in living tissue Nonspecific drug effects based on unique characteristics of the ind ie mood expectations Placebo is a nonspecific drug effect it is an inert compound but can have therapeutic and side effects Bioavailability amount of drug in blood that is free to bind at target site how much gets to target when take drug depends on how much administered etc important in indicating why person takes way they do Pharmacokinetic component of drug action dynamic factors that contribute to bioavailability ie bbb routes of admin Pharmacokinetic factors 1 Routes of administration 2 Absorptiondistribution bbb important 3 Binding 4 Inactivation 5 Excretion1 Oral administration safest drug must be resistant to destruction by stomach acid and enzymes Drugs absorbed from stomach and intestines enters blood to liver where metabolises and reduces amount in circulation reducing bioavailabilityproblem for therapeutic drugs dont know if its the dose or if its ineffective First pass metabolismafter gets into liver metabolised Majority of orally administered drugs not fully absorbed until reach small intestine Intravenous most rapidaccurate Quick onset of drug effects can be a hazard Drug cant be removed as can by stomach pump From heartlungs where oxygenated to other side of heart to brain More can get into brain because doesnt pass through liver first Intramuscular slower more even absorption over period of time Absorption can be slowed by combining drug with another that constricts blood vessels or veg oil Need to pass through biomembranes that surround blood vesselsIntraperitoneal rarely used w humans common in lab Injected through abdominal wall into space surrounding abdominal organs Similar to oral Subcutaneous drug injected just below skin even distribution Absorption slow but can be variable and can be slowed by veg oil or implantation of pellet or delivery device cna make its way to blood vesselsmuscles etc Drug sits in fat tissue for whileInhalation absorbed from lungs rapid because lungs hve large surface area and many capillaries Drug effect rapid Straight to lungs when breathe that oxygen is what is meant to go into blood to go to rest of body to oxygenate tissues mixes with oxygen which travels to left side of heart up to brain and down to be metabolised Epidural injection spinal anesthetics are delivered to cerebrospinal fluid bypasses BBB not exactly true because not breaking dura matter which makes up part of BBB if break and get into actual spinal cord youre injecting opioid into nervous tissue and can cause respiratory depression Injected into epidural space In lab can do intracranial or intracerebroventricularinto ventricles stop specific part of brain from functioning brain damage after while in human probability of infection Tubes in brain used to inject to specific site microinjections Most important factor in determining plasma drug levels is rate of passage of drug though cell membranes Cell membranes are primarily phospholipids which have a neg charged region hydrophilic and 2 uncharged tails hydrophobic arranged in a bilayer Every tissue in body covered with cell membrane Two types of drug classes that are either fatliking or waterliking1lipophobichydrophilic ionized molecules charged waterliking Molecules dissolve in water already
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