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PHIL1550 Full Notes for the Entire Year

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PHIL 1550
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PHIL1550THPHILOSOPHY MIDTERM FEBRUARY 5 Moral theory account of whether something is right or wrong Moral RelativismMorality is relative to the culture which it takes placeIts okay for that culture to do that because they have different values than usMorals are context dependent Divine Command TheoryRight or wrong has been decided by GodMoral Absolutism morality is either right or wrong Problem many religionsAre things moral because God said so or does God say so because it is moralKilling is wrong because God said so vs God said so because killing is wrongKilling is wrong because God said so if he changes his mind the next day and says thou shall kill does that make it correct nowGod said so because killing is wrong if this is the case then God is limited and he is not infinite What determines whether an action is morally permissible ConsequentialismAct Consequentialism permissibility of action is based on how good consequences areUtilitarianism everyones interests count and similar interests must be counted as having similar weight or importanceAct Utilitarianism must create more good than harmPreference Utilitarianism how well ones preferences are satisfiedPerfectionist Utilitarianism some things are objectively good for someone even if they dont care about themRule UtilitarianismRules that describe how the greater good is producedBenthamUtilitarianism maximize pleasure minimize pain for the greatest numberHedonistic and classical utilitarianismMeasure morality by how much pain or pleasure it producesOutcome of actions are the most importantMillHuman goodanimal goodSingerDecisions are moral based on the overall amount of good that they produceUtilitarianist to produce the most utilityEx child is very disabled and this could affect parents lives thus its okay to end childs lifeFocus is on preferencewhat you prefer constitutes itself as happinessEx if you enjoy inserting nails in your hands well thats fine because its your happinessUnlike Mill includes the fact that animals do have preferences but they are NOT rightsUtilitarianists would be vegetarian but if there came a time where it is necessary to eat meat such as starvation eating an animal would be the accepted as it creates the best goodHumans do not have rights eitherIf killing one person would save a bunch more then doing so would create good utility and increase total happinessCriticism of utilitarianismCant predict all outcomesDefine usefulnessInstead of buying a coffee one should be donating the moneytoo demanding of a theoryDiscriminates against minorities as it is for the greater numberIf immoral person does moral things consequentialism agreesintentions are not important DeontologyIntention of the acts are important unlike consequentialismAbsolute moralsDont depend on consequences or divine willKantTest for morality universality test or categorical imperativeIf you can universalize an action then its okayIf stealing was universal then property wouldbe meaningless and the notion of theft isas wellIf one was hiding from a killer in your backyard you would be obliged to tell the killer where that person isHuman life should never be sacrificedProblem if someone were to get into your house and want to kill your children then technically you shouldnt be allowed to kill this personHuman rights Virtue EthicsAristotleFocus on the virtues individuals haveWhat type of person is a moral personVirtues help create moral people not moral actionsVirtues depend on contextTherefore who knows what virtues people should have if they differ in time and place Feminist EthicsEthics of CareMorality is about individuals and their feelings
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