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PHIL 2003 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Explanandum And Explanans, Long Term Ecological Research Network, The PrinciplePremium

17 pages124 viewsFall 2016

Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 2003
Professor
Ken Ferguson
Study Guide
Midterm

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Waterloo
PHIL 2003
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Introduction to Critical Thinking
Paterson hall floor 3A, fb - Carleton University Philosophy Society (peer mentoring)
Purpose of course:
To help students develop and cultivate the skill of eective critical thinking
What is critical thinking?:
Process or activity
Uses methods and skills
Goal oriented
Eective critical thinking:
Analyzing
Interpreting
Criticizing
Evaluating
Airport Security Analogy:
CT is not just negative in helping you to avoid false details but should include
creative/constructive thinking that allows you to search further into things
Why forming true beliefs can be dicult (external v. internal forces):
The world (reality) can be complex
We are constantly being thrown information that can be hard to process quickly/easily
There are forces intent on deceiving us (marketers, politicians, the media)
We may already be caught up in false beliefs
Defects within our own minds as belief formers
Belief Formers, Cognitive Weaknesses:
Prone to influences that ay interfere with clear thinking: emotions, bias
Reluctance to change/update beliefs in light of experiences and evidence
Too influenced by authority or tradition
Lack of background information
Tendency to commit certain types of logical errors: fallacies of reasoning
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Cognitive biases: when quick thinking you may follow certain rules that may not be
what you would actually do if you had more time (defects of reasoning), from evolution
Ex. actor-observer bias: I describe what I do dierently than I would describe someone
else doing the same thing. I fail a test: I would say “I didn’t have time”, if it was
someone else who failed I’d say “He/she was too lazy to study properly"
Defects of observation and memory
CT is not:
Incompatible with emotions
Not just finding fault with people
Not being argumentative (arguing for the sake of arguing)
Not just being skeptical of everything, you need information to decipher
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