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History of Political Thought.doc

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Carleton University
Political Science
PSCI 2301

Midterm25 terms and 3 long answer questions each one building off the last Key terms 1 Civilization from civitascity An ensemble of cultures with varying degrees of melding Civilizations have fuzzy porous boundaries that expand and contract over time and are thereby flexible Civilizations are in varying degrees tolerant accessible inclusive urban and cosmopolitan2 CultureL cultuscult Also associated with worship care cultivation Verb form colereto till to guard to tend to respect Hence agriculture Therefore culture is associated with the particular as opposed to the universal to the provincial as opposed to the urban the rustic as opposed to the sophisticated Cultures have hard rigid boundaries making them difficult to cross and thereby are exclusive often requiring perceptions and practices in the form of initiation and ritual 3 Material Cause Most fundamental element ie wood 4 Formal CauseNecessary but not the sufficient cause ie door 5 AgencyLearning the relation between 3 and 4 and bringing it into appearance usually with tools 6 Final CauseThe justification of the object with either use or beauty as a measure 7 Public vs PrivateTraditionally the private realm was that of the home linked to biological necessity associated with darkness and thereby the unseen nonappearance and tied to the rhythms of the bodynecessity The function of the private is housekeeping G OEkonomeathe Economy What takes place here That which is necessary for life production through labor and reproduction through breeding The Private Realmhousehold consists of a man woman and children and perhaps slaves On leaving this realm one crosses the threshold boundaryO End enters into the public aka the bright light of appearance a realm that is potentially both public and political It is a realm where work can be done and cities can be built providing a stage where free men can speak and act before others and acting action and speaking are the substance of politics Dike a Greek term that defines justice Based on a tradition that brings moral order and fair judgmentNatural Law one of the four laws defined by StThomas Aquinas Natural law is a human participation in eternal law through reason and will Human will interpret eternal law of God by deciding what is good and what is evilSuffering Servant A term found in the book of Isaiah Refers to the Jewish people as suffering servants They are continually suffering in the way they live they are waiting for their mastersavior to save themLamb of God Mentioned in the book of Isaiah A sacrifice one makes to strive away from their sins and do this by providing a sacrifice to God Abraham was to sacrifice his beloved son for God Chaerephon A friend brought up in the trial of Socrates He is dead when spoken about in the Apology Chaerephon accompanied Socrates to Delphi where the Oracle stated Socrates was the wisest man of all Socrates was searching for the wisest man and what made a wise manDoxa mentioned in Platos Republic It means the opinion in Greek The level of understanding gained by the mind when its activity is directed to things Polemarchus His name means the war ruler Son of Kephalos Defends his father after Socrates disagrees with Kephalos definition of justice Polemarchus believes that justice is helping friends and harming enemies Glaucon His name means the gleaming one A student of Socrates He argues that justice is the underlying concern of human selfinterest Thrasymachus his name means bold fighter He jumps in the conversation of Polemarchus and Socrates and denies that justice has a virtue He has no real argument to his cause though Miletus One of the three men who accused Socrates of atheism Miletus was a poet so he was very respected in Athens The only accuser to speak during Socrates trialAristophanes Another man who accused Socrates He turned a lot of people against Socrates from the beginning He made plays that depict the war like Clouds and Assembly of Women Greeks needed a scapegoat because of the spiritual crisis so Socrates was targeted Peloponnesian War A war like no other that caused a spiritual crisis Athens and Greece could not get over Its how politics and philosophy first started politics is war with boundariesGyges mentioned in Glaucons speech of justice The term refers to the ownership of the power of becoming invisible at will It questions the idea of how exactly would someone use this power Would they open doors and so forth or would they use the power to their own advantage Lycon One of the three people that accused Socrates He is a politician and Oriator a prosecutor n the trial of Socrates
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