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Political Science
PSCI 2500
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PSCI 2500 Review1 What factors explain the low representation of women in formal politicsGender Gap the political differences between men and womens political beliefs trust and attitudes towards political systemsEducation employment and secularization The feminization of povertyLack of democratic stability within Nordic countries women in formal politics was successful due to stability egalitarianism a large public sector extended welfare state and higher standards of living etc2 Explain the meaning of the term gender gap in the context of voting behaviour and identify historical and contemporary factors that influence gender gap in votingWomen are more likely to vote according to more liberal candidates since progression within society is established women are likely to vote according to the newer cultural trends ie liberal ideals vs actually voting according to traditional conservative valuesNorris theory of gender gapthe redealignment of gender politics within postindustrial societies For example US men have shifted to Republican parties and women are voting Democrats this is all affected by the womans political freedom such as her establishment in the workforce and etc3 Summarise the message of the film Enemies of Happiness Enemies of Happiness is a documentary about the controversial Afghan politician and member of Parliament Malalai Joy Malalai was 28 when she decided to run in the 2005 elections this was the first ever democratic elections Afghanistan has ever had The film gives a depiction of life for many of the Afghans who demanded political change and were frustrated of living in fear of militia groups4 Explain the gap between men and womens representation in parliamentsAge women MPs were more likely to be over 40 years of age and senators are over 50 due to appointmentEducation most women candidates have a higher education than males over 60 and have more political experience that males to make up for being in a male dominated fieldRace Ethnic minority women have higher socioeconomic profiles that nonminority femalesClass is a determining factor for parliamentary accessSexual division of labour and division of labour in the workforcethere is a marginalization of women in politics because women have fewer resources such as political contacts education money leisure time to nuture political careersThe privatepublic dichotomy the personal is politicalthere are gendered valuespublic view neutrality reason objectivitycollective governance accessible and etc Private view emotion femininity subjectivity sex body nurture nature inferiority etc5 Do female and male MPs in Canada and also around the world reflect the status and interests of their constituentsMajority of the political parties do not have values that correspond with feminist ideas and so if a feminist politician emerges that necessarily mean that she will make significant changes in Cabinet There are feminist issues on a national scale but there is not that much influence on other parties there is a lot of hostility towards feminist agendas therefore the need to assimilate values Generally voters appoint politicians because they seem to have values that correspond with their own however this does not mean that they actually act upon the interest of their constituents6 Discuss global trends in gender based representation1Women candidates in Canada have higher levels of education over 60 with uniedu and political experience than male candidates indicating that women must compensate for the role conflict inherent in entering masculine domain Tremblay and Trimble 20022Ethnic minority women have a higher socioeconomic profile than nonminority women Black 20003Class is a determining factor in shaping access to parliament4The number of professional women has climbed up in Canada from the first generation women MPs to the third fewer women selfemployed5Latin America Similar patterns6Earlier women older married with children university educated but from different professions social work educators etc7The gender gap between men and women MPS diminishing7 What were the dilemmas faced by women of the KT party in IcelandDue to upcoming elections the womens were pushed into entering electoral politics as well as engaging in other feministpro womens activistsA problem the group faced from the beginning was how to stand outside the political system and adhere to feminist principles while still being part of the conventional political apparatus Began holding weekly meetings where women could come together and discuss what needed to be doneAmbiguities in their position the party rejects the part of familial id5eology which gave women an inferior status in society by arguing that womens work in the home was socially valuable and deserved public recognition The idea of feminine tradition appealed to them because it could attract a broad crosssection of women The problem with this is that it contradicted what most feminist parties aim to do address tyranny of domestic commitments which bars working class women from time to consider their own liberationContradictions of feminist participation in the electoral process while the KF party had a great success when 2 candidates gained entry into the city council once inside they found themselves isolated and lonely Because their efforts inside the council made no difference it was becoming difficult reassure the women of the value of the work done at the grass roots levelThis created a rift between the women working at the grass roots level and those working within the parliamentary system due to the hierarchal division and when the rules and procedures established under masculine tradition failed to change KF forced men to acknowledge feminism and its demands but in practice they did not alter the relationships with women
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