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PSCI 2602 Final Prep.doc

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Carleton University
Political Science
PSCI 2602

PSCI 2602 Final PrepTerms1Complex InterdependenceDefinition Complex interdependence is the idea put forth by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye that states and their fortunes are inextricably tied together It was created as a critique of economic nationalism and has three main characteristicsoMultiple channels it connects societies including informal ties between governmental elites nongovernmental elites and transnational organizational these channels are summarized as interstate transgovernmental and transnational EX multinational firms and banks affect both domestic and interstate relationsoAbsence of hierarchy agendas of interstate relationships have issues that are not arranged in a clear hierarchy Among other things this means that the military security consistently dominate the agenda The distinction between domestic and foreign issues is blurred and different issues result in different coalitions within and across governments EX foreign affairs agenda has become larger wider and more diverseoMilitary force It is not used between governments and other governments within the region or dealing with similar issues when complex interdependence prevails Military force can however be used between governments outside that region or on other regions For example it can be irrelevant when solving disagreements over economic disputes complex interdependence but can be important for that alliances political and military relations with a rival bloc not complex interdependence EX In the EU because they are heavily dependent on one another socially politically and especially economically the thought of a military force between them is next to almost impossibleSHORT VERSION oMultiple channels the use of multiple channels of action between societies in interstate transgovernmental and transnational relationsoAbsence of hierarchy the absence of a hierarchy of issues with changing agendas and linkages between issues prioritizedoMilitary force bringing about a decline in the use of military force and coercive power in international relationsSignificance There is greater cooperation between states Furthermore it most to a postWestphalian world where states are not the only important actions or significant factors in political economy Also it reduces the risk of warfare because they are so dependent on one another Its like a security community where because their economic ties are so strong the idea of war ever occurring between them is impossibleCritique Economic nationalists would argue this is not an accurate representation of the world because they believe that states only cooperate to benefit themselves and if they find economic relations to be bad for them they will get out of it potentially disrupting other nations economies2Gramscian AnalysisHe focused on the role of ideas and culture in explaining capitalist hegemony A hegemon is seen as a class domination that is solely based on consent Additionally hegemony is not based on material power of just one superpower but is supported by hegemonic ideology that is in favor of capitalism Hegemonic social order is a constituent of the church the educational system the press and all the institutions that have shaped people and their mode of behavioursCox explanation of Gramscis analysis with respect to IPE Hegemony is enough to ensure conformity of behaviour in most people most of the time His ideas were influenced by the basic difference between Russia and Western Europe thus he argued that the war of movement could not be effective against the hegemonic statesocieties of Western Europe He saw Russia as the state being everything while the civil society was underdeveloped he saw Western Europe as the civil society under bourgeois hegemony being fully developed Gramsci sees hegemony as a key element in three dimensions the state Passive Revolution and Historic BlocThese three dimensions underline the perception of hegemony and that hegemony of the ruling class which is exercised over a whole social formation eventually constrains the administrative coercive and executive apparatuses Gramsci established a link between hegemony and the bourgeoisies and added that the bourgeoisies were not able to establish hegemony within the society through the three dimensions that can attain hegemony3Bretton Woods SystemDefinition It is an international monetary regime that prevailed from the end of World War II until the early 1970s The BWS a dollarbased fixed exchange regime was historys first example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern currency relations among states In principle the regime was designed to combine binding legal obligations with multilateral decisionmaking conducted through an international organization the IMF which acted as a lender of last resort endowed with limited supranational authority In practice the initial scheme as well as its subsequent development and ultimate demise were directly dependent on the preferences and policies of the most powerful states there There are four underlining points1Disadvantages of unrestrained flexibility of exchange rates call for fixed but adjustable exchange rates2Governments agreed that if exchange rates were not to float freely states would also require assurance of an adequate supply of monetary reserves3Binding framework that would remove existing exchange controls limiting currency convertibility and return to a system of free multilateral payments members forbidden to engage in discriminatory currency practices or exchange regulation There were however capital controlstaxes or measures to stop money from flowing in and out for speculative purposes4Need for an institutional forum for international cooperation on monetary matters and US would emerge as a hegemonic power Significance Resulted in the creation of two very powerful monetary systemsthe IMF and the World Bank It also gave evidence for a lasting effectiveness of regimes political rules and global economic orderWhy did it collapse Decline in economic competitiveness loss of confidence in the US dollar major trading partners European and Japan were more politically and economically independent decline in US hegemonic powerCritique The Bretton Woods System provided evidence of the key role of power in shaping the design and evolution of international regimes giving rise to socalled hegemonic stability theory Only the most powerful countries basically the US had control over the functioning of the BWS4Comparative AdvantageDefinition First mentioned by Adam Smith at the GPE level comparative advantage refers to the ability of a state to produce a particular good or service at a lower marginal and opportunity
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