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PSCI 2702 Winter 2013 Notes.doc

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Political Science
PSCI 2702
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PSCI2702BWinter2013LectureNotesIntroduction to StatsStart with a research questionCompose a research hypothesis with the intention of proving your previously stated question correctIdentify the independent versus the dependent variables in the research hypothesis Descriptive versus Inferential StatsUnivariate descriptive statsBivariate Multivariate descriptive statsTo help better understand descriptive stats it is best to identify factors of the stats presented by identifying the average mean median and mode of the data present Inferential StatsGeneralizations conducted from samples of populationsChoosing samples that are representative Meaning that you are attempting to represent an entire population with that chosen sample Must be fair equal and unbiased Levels of MeasurementNominal No mathematical calculations required gender area code provinceNot mutually exclusive two categories can apply ex South Ontario and TorontoNon exhaustive not all categories in the set apply to everyone ex race white black hispanicNon Homogenous only small options ex did you enjoy the movie yes or noThe only numerical value that can be calculated under nominal is a calculation of the mode most popular category chosen in the dataOrdinal Level of MeasurementRank order categoriesOnly Interval Ratio data can aquaria a measure of the mean Mean is known as the best and most accurate measure of central tendencyThrough the measure of the mean of a set of data we are able to calculate absolute differences between categories or in other words calculate the differences between two categories in the dataWith ordinal levels of measurement we are able to rank order categories but are unable to calculate absolute differences examples we can rank lower middle and upper class categories but we cannot say that upper class is 10 degrees above middle or the difference between middle and lower class is 25 We are able to rank the categories but there is no numerical value for them
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