Oda Elizabeth Friesen, PSCI 3600 International Institutions Final Exam Review.docx

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Carleton University
Political Science
PSCI 3600
Oda Elizabeth Friesen

Lecture 13 History Context and Theory of IOs and IIsIntroductionDefinitionsDo international organizations and institutions have relevant effects in the international system How can we grasp these effects Why do international organizationsinstitutions exist How are they created and maintained What benefits do they bring Are there other actors What are the advantages to states of cooperation versus competition Advantages of pooling of sovereignty Howwhy do they develop and evolve over time How do IOs and IIs work to address the four dilemmasoDilemmas security welfare human rights and environmentalDifferent IOs and IIs have different kinds of power and different pathways to influenceDifferent theoretical lenses make different kinds of power visible Shifts in study of IOs and IIsoFirst focus on institutions as formal IOs created by states to serve state interestoThen institutions seen as international regimes states still have an important role but the institutions themselves also matteroFinally the definition of institution can expand to include norms and valuesDefining 1 international institutions international organizations and regimes 2 government and governance1 IIs vs IOs vs Regimes IIsoInstitution may refer to a general pattern or categorization of activity or to a particular humanconstructed arrangement formally or informally organized Examples of institutions as general patterns include Bulls institutions of international society as well as such varied patterns of behavior as marriage and religion sovereign statehood diplomacy and neutralityoPersistent and connected sets of rules formal or informal that prescribe behavioral roles constrain activity and shape expectations oSpecific institutions such as the French state the Roman Catholic church the international nonproliferation regime or the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade are discrete entities identifiable in space and time Specific institutions may be exemplars of general patterns of activity the United Nations exemplifies multilateral diplomacyoInstitutions can be seen as frozen decisions or history encoded into rules rules may be informal or implicit rather than codifiedoPractice is very important and can change over time IOsoTerm introduced in the 1860s by Scottish legal scholar James Lorimer 1880 Constantin Frantz federalism as a principle for IOs oTerm IO was indirectly recognized in article 23 of the Covenant of the League of Nations that suggested that suggested the creation of specialized IOs for the promotion of intl cooperationoAfter WW2 the concept of IOs was accepted preamble of UN charter says signatories establish an IO to be known as the UNoIOs can play different roles through their member states leading to three separate conceptions of IOs 1 role as instruments 2 role as arenas 3 role as actors1Instruments where states can pursue their own interests ex UNSC cases2Arena IOs resemble a playing field where theyre permanent institutions of conference diplomacy where states can exchange info condemn or justify certain actions and coordinate their political strategies exUN climate change3Actors states have pooled or delegated their sovereignty so that IOs embody the characteristics of a corporate actor capable of independent actions ex European commission as a corporate actor where EU states delegated substantial decision making and implementation authorityoCan transcend the boundaries of issue areas ex UN and EU oIOs can function either as quasiactors at the bidding of their most powerful states instruments or as collective actors arena RegimesoGoverning arrangements constructed by states to coordinate their expectations and organize aspects of international behavior in various issueareasoThey comprise a normative element state practice and organizational rolesoThus they relate to specific issue areas such as the protection of the ozone layer or the protection of human rights cannot operate like actorsoEx Trade regime monetary regime ocean regime 2 Government vs Governance 755759oGovernment formallegal a body that comprises a persongroup of persons who run the administration of a country This is a means in which power is exercised There are various forms of governments such as democracy or autocracy but this article will remain confined to the general term government which is commonly used in social sciencesoGovernance informal decisionmaking environment refers to the activities of a government the rules and laws made by the government that are sought to be implemented through a chosen bureaucracy four stages of governance o1 Formal institutions a whatever IOs do b the formal attributes of IOs such as their charters voting procedures committee structures account for what they doo2 Institutional processes the actual decisionmaking processes within IOso3 Organizational role focus shifted to the actual and potential roles of IOs in a more broadly conceived process of intl governance 3 clusters1 emphasis on the roles of IOs in the resolution of substantive intl problem ex peacekeeping2 longterm institutional consequences of the failure to solve substantive problems through the available institutional means neofunctionalist integrationist focus 3 shifted the focus onto a more general concern with how IIs reflect and to some extent magnify or modify the characteristic features of the intl system IOs as potential dispensers of collective legitimacyo4 International regimes governing arrangements constructed by states to coordinate their expectations and organize aspects of international behavior in various issueareas ex monetary regime ocean regimeHistory and Context of International InstitutionsPeace of Westphalia 1648Series of peace treaties signed in Osnabrck and MnsterInitiated a new system of political order in Europe Westphalian sovereigntyBased on the concept of a sovereign state governed by a sovereign and establishing a prejudice against interference in another nations domestic businessThe treaty signaled the end of destructive wars that had ravaged Europe represented the triumph of sovereignty over empire and established the first version of intl order
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