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PSCI 2003 Study Guide - Final Guide: Yes Minister, Fire Extinguisher, White Paper

Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 2003
J Malloy
Study Guide

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Prof Jonathan Malloy
PSCI 2003 Exam Review (Fall 2016)
Exam format
Part A Multiple Choice 30%
o 17 questions best 15 answers used
Part B Short Answers 40%
o 6 questions answer 2
Part C Long Answers 30%
o 3 questions answer 1
Terms and Concepts
Constitution: The whole body of rules and principles according to which the state is governed, that in
the Canadian case, consists of conglomeration of documents and conventions. Quebec never signed the
Constitution Act, 1867: replaced the British North America Act.
Constitution Act, 1982: A major amendment to the Canadian Constitution that added a Charter
of Rights and Freedoms, and amending formula, classes on equalization and Aboriginal rights,
and a change to the division of powers with respect to natural resources.
Written constitution: Constitution is written down and is very difficult to amend. The United
States of America have a written constitution. Lockean style of constitution-making:
contractual, agreed, one-time.
Unwritten constitution: A group of traditions and conventions on how the state is governed.
None of it is written down. Easy to amend but difficult to enforce. Britain has this type of
constitution. Burkean type of constitution-making: traditional, organic, evolving.
Partly-written constitution: A mixed of a written and unwritten constitution. Difficult to enforce
and amend in some ways, and easy in others. Canada has this type of constitution. A mix of
Lockean and Burkean.
Canada an historic accident: Confederation happened in Canada out of convenience NOT out of a
shared ideology (like in the U.S).
There was growing discontent in many colonies
The constitution was created because Upper and Lower Canada had disproportional
representation in their local governments.
o Canada tried implementing Responsible Government but ended up with Representative
government in 1791 (Governor, Executive Council and Legislative Council.
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This led to violence and anger in Upper and Lower Canada.
Lord Durham called for responsible government like in the UK.
Legislative assembly was added for Responsible government.
Also called for Upper and Lower Canada to merge.
Nova Scotia, 1848
Granted quietly through instructions from London
Soon followed in other colonies
Gradual Evolutionary Undramatic
Lord Elgin asked Baldwin and LaFontaine (moderate reformers who won
elections in Canada East and Canada West) to form government together.
o Why confederation? (six reasons)
1. Canada-West representation-by-population
Both Canada East and West had 50 chairs for representation but the
populations were different. Once more colonies arrived in Canada West,
it pushed for rep-by-pop.
2. French-Canadian fears of assimilation
3. British pressure
Britain interested in getting colonies to look after themselves
4. American threat
Americans in Civil War
Canadians worried war will move up to Canada
5. Maritime Union
Province of Canada showed up to meeting about Maritime union and
proposed confederation
6. Western Expansion
o All of the reasons for confederation were reactive decisions that had to do with fear
(usually). Decision for confederation was a pragmatic agreement for mutual benefit.
Royal Proclamation, 1763: British colonizers made a pragmatic decision of telling colonies not to settle
o Idigeous lad ot fo the potetio of Idigeous people ut fo the oloies’ o eefits. The
British policy enunciated after Britain won Quebec from France that in a large area called Indian
Territory the purchase or settlement of land was forbidden without a treaty between the Crown and the
Indian people concerned. First time a document outlined the idea of the treaty with Aboriginals. Also
acknowledged that Terra Nullius (land free from ownership or use by a powerful authority) did not
Quebec Act, 1774: A British law passed in 1774 that provided for a system of government for the colony
of Quebec (Canada)and that provided certain privileges to the French-speaking Roman Catholic
Majority. Guaranteed the French their religious rights and their own system of civil law.
Durham report: The 1839 report by Lord Durham that recommended the union of Upper and Lower
Canada and the granting of Responsible Government to the colony of Canada.
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Responsible government: A form of government in which the political executive must retain the
confidence of the elected legislature or assembly and must resign or call an election if and when it is
defeated on a vote of nonconfidence.
Lord Durham ordered this in his report
Responsible government came to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Canada in 1848, and three
years later to PEI.
Ties with Britain (six):
Foreign Policy
o It was originally assumed that Canada would have the same foreign policies as Britain
o WWI- Britain declared war on Germany. Canada never did because it was automatically
entered into war (dominion with the British empire)
o After WWI- Canada signs first treaty on own with Americans
o 1931 Statute of Westminster Canada becomes independent nation (equal to Britain
and other colonies)
o WWII Canada declares war on Germany one week after Britain.
o 1956 Canada opposes a British policy for the first time.
o 1947 Canadian citizenship exists
o Highest court possible was the Judicial Commitee of Privy Council IN BRITAIN (above
Caada’s “upee Cout
o 1949 Changed. Supreme court became highest court.
o Before 1965 Flag was red with British flag and Canadian coat of arms
o 1965 Changed to Maple leaf
o 1982 Constitution was in Britain for symbolic purposes but Canada brought it home.
Head of State
o Crown = collectivity of executive by or in the name of the monarch
o Monarch = holds the powers on behalf of the people
o Represented in Canada by Governor General
And Lieutenant-Governor
o Befoe 5, Bits ee appoited as Caada’s Goeo Geeal.
Pro and Con of the Crown
Historic and traditional symbol part of
our heritage
Outdated; elitist, British-only heritage
Uifig ad soli head of state –
Queen with GG as local representative
Queen lives far away; rarely visits; GGs of
uneven quality
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