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PSCI 3000 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: James Bay Project, Canada Pension Plan, Agreement Respecting A New Relationship Between The Cree Nation And The Government Of Quebec


Department
Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 3000
Professor
Rand Dyck
Study Guide
Midterm

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Quebec (1)
1.Geography – largest province in geography; it extends further North than the other
provinces. Dispute over Labrador; extends further north than others; Canadian shield
(rock, trees, rivers) and St. Lawrence Lowlands; Historically, St. Lawrence was significant to
Quebec.
Rivers -> hydro-electricity
Transportation - important ports: Sept-Iles, Port Cartier, Quebec, Montreal;
Most of their produce is Iron exported from Iron Mines (Sept-Iles & Port Cartier);
highways, railways, airports, Air Canada (not providing total bilingual service)
Population – 8 million (23.1% of Canada); 3.8 million Montreal, 765,000 Quebec
City, 315,000 Gatineau (third largest city in Quebec);
2. Economy: primary:
a) Agriculture – dairy, hogs, poultry – land issue; does not have a huge expensive land as
the West do, so it doesn’t produce huge quantities of wheat. Not a lot of territory needed
for dairy products, hogs and poultry (chicken and eggs)- Quebec specializes in this type
of Agriculture (national leader in these sectors). Farmers cannot sell their land unless they
receive approval from an Agriculture department
b) Mining – gold, iron – Labrador Trough (Iron Mine), nickel (asbestos, shale gas)
found at the top of Quebec. Asbestos – world-class leader in producing this; believed it
was the ‘jewels’ of their economy. Later they realized that Asbestos causes people to die.
Still shipped to third world countries – made excuses for continuing the export.
c) Forestry – esp. newsprint, pulp & paper; but many problems, maple syrup
i. Quebec trees good for making pulp and paper – important for Quebec’s
industry
Secondary: electricity – 98% hydro – St. Lawrence; nationalization & economic
development,
e.g. aluminum; theft of Churchill Falls; new rivers after 1960: James Bay (Grande Rivière)
– 1970s- Big river developed for hydro purposes; which was in the middle of the North. It was
called the James Bay project – diverting 5 rivers into 1 to make it a bigger river. ; Great Whale
– 1980s – abandoned; Eastmain; Romaine river; wind- hydro is produced by wind;
food & beverages; newsprint; aluminum pharmaceuticals, aerospace; transportation
equipment—Bombardier-expanded into a world producer of train cars and subway cars; oil
refineries
Tertiary: finance; caisses populaires instead of using commercial banks because they were
local and French (Desjardins); Caisse de Dépôt- Pearson modeled the Canada pension plan to
the Quebec pension plan; can be lend out to businesses before people with pensions; nearly 500
billion dollars sitting into accounts that could be leant out to business people; engineering;
culture (incl. music)
Tourism: Montreal, Quebec, skiing, etc.

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Federal Transfers: Canada Health Transfer $8.3 billion;
Canada Social Transfer $3.1 billion
Equalization Payments $10.0 billion
$21.4 billion
3. Class: (a) middle ranking in per capita income
(b) Relatively strong union movement -> labour laws have been progressive for the
labour movement; Quebec has developed one of the stronger unions in the country; the
labour laws encourage the formation of unions
(c) Economic elite: historically Anglo, but now Franco; historically Francophones
were poor farmers; they were at the bottom of the class list (the ones who cut trees and worked in
mines); all of the businesses were owned by Anglos; but this was changed by the Quiet
revolution and now Francophones own the majority of the economy. Three main reasons as to
why this happen:
o(Education, language laws, Caisses) – educating more Francophones;
graduating as economists and business admins; they now have the skills;
also passed French language laws; firms operating in French
oDesmarais- they are very rich; Desmarais is a huge business family in
Quebec, Bombardier, Pierre Karl Péladeau- he inherited his empire from
his father;
oDion, Saputo, Coutu, Métro supermarkets
(d) Identifiable middle class as heart of the Quiet Revolution
– Salaried professionals in the public sector
4. Ethnicity and Religion:
a) French very sensitive to numbers: mother tongue 2006 - 79.6%; 2011 - 78.9%;
Home Language 81.2%; Montreal worse. Francophone population over 80% -
Quebecers felt very secure, but then immigrants arrived.
b) Concerns: economic dominance of Anglos; birthrate and immigration issues.
Immigrants encouraged to speak French – some already did.
c) -> language laws – Bill 22 (1974) – directed to immigrant children; if they cannot pass
English test, they will be sent to French school (at age 5) – this will bolster the French
population; and Bill 101 (1977): schools, business/work, signs cf. PET approach to
BILINGUALISM; only French – SCC disallowed bill 101, because businesses should
be able to exercise their freedom of expression. Trudeau wanted to make the whole
country officially bilingual not just Quebec.
d) Visible Minorities: 11% (Mtl: 15%) esp. Black and Arab-; recent Immigration: non-
French and French-Muslim- open to immigrant to counter the low birth rate; “inter-
culturalism”- used to counter multiculturalism in the rest of the country; sometimes
interculturalism is equated to that – but it is mainly about learning French; French is the
common language of public life – cannot wear any kind of religious symbol; racism ->
“reasonable accommodation”; Bouchard- Taylor report
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e) Aboriginals – 140,000 (1.8%) – mostly North (Cree); South: Mohawks; James Bay
(1975), Great Whale, Oka (1990), Paix des Braves (2002), Nunavik (Inuit)
f) Religion: 75% RC; Quiet Revolution -> turned their back on religion; religious
schools – 1997 amendment; new issues - Muslims 3%; PQ Charter of Values
5. Political Culture: values and attitudes of the society
a) Pre-1960: traditional, conservative, backward, rural, authoritarian (government
and Church); before 1960 everyone
b) Post-1960: progressive, urban, democratic, secular, bureaucratic – Trudeau loosened
up the abortion laws but made limits for certain procedures; Quebec was the first
province to allow abortion clinics – something very abhorrent to the Catholic church
c) Always nationalistic, but changed from pre- 1960 “survivance” to expansion &
public sector nationalism (1960-1985) to market nationalism after 1985; the
nationalism focused on the provincial government; started to expand to the private
sector, as it was also done in a Francophone way; private sector markets controlled by
Francophones, so they’re ultimately not losing anything
d) Federalist and separatist approaches after 1965 – they wanted Quebec to be regarded
distinct in some way; Francophones more or less in control.
e) Social democratic – welfare state – daycare, pharmacare, low tuition, other social
programs; $5 a day for daycare; ahead of the other provinces in terms of social
democracy; low tuition rates – almost free to go to university
f) Voter Turnout -
6. Political Parties:
a) Usually two: Liberals plus Conservatives, Union Nationale, or Parti Québécois; now
3.5: 2014 election: 70 Liberal, 30 PQ, 22 Coalition Avenir Québec (CAQ), 3 Québec
Solidaire; Pierre Karl Péladeau
i. PQ is more or less a separatist party; CAQ is more of a right wing
nationalistic party; Quebec Solidaire are the left wing party; the Liberals
are federalists;
b) Two axes of ideology – internal and external
c) Weak links between federal and provincial Parties
7. Elections:
a) Orthodox FPTP now, but wrong party won 3 elections: 1944, 1966, 1998; reform
proposal: MMP (77 + 50)
b) Historically corrupt, but now progressive party finance rules (maximum individual
contribution of $100)
8. Pressure Groups and Mass Media:
a) RC Church historical Involvement in groups- before 1960, the Catholic church tried to
control the pressure groups, labour unions, farm groups and youth groups. The Catholic
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