PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 1
PSYC1001 - Final Exam Study Guide
Chapter 5 (lectures)
• What is consciousness? What are the different levels of awareness (states of consciousness)?
States of Consciousness
Consciousness – “awareness” (of our external and internal environments)
Freud – most of our thoughts are out of our awareness (thoughts, desires, emotions that may be unacceptable to
our conscious mind)
Medical – our consciousness has been interrupted by some medical condition/trauma – body may still show some
level of reactivity
Subconscious Awareness – processing just beneath the surface of our awareness (dreams, automatic processes)
- Uncontrolled Awareness – daydreaming (letting your mind wander) processing requiring minimal attention
(riding a bike)
- Controlled Awareness –conscious attention is focused (focusing your attention)
Self-Awareness – “metacognition” – thinking about your own thinking processes
Altered States of Awareness – any mental state that is different from normal (due to fatigue, drugs, trauma,
• What is sleep? What are the functions of sleep? What are the different stages of sleep? What is
happening in the brain during sleep? What are the brain mechanisms that regulate sleep?
Sleep – during sleep we are not unconscious - “altered” consciousness.
• Given that sleep is almost universal in the animal kingdom, it must therefore serve some useful function.
During sleep, we are at risk of predation.
Does sleep serve a physical recuperation function or a mental recuperation function?
Function of Sleep
Is sleep necessary in order to repair the strain put on the body from the day’s activities?
- Giant sloth – sleeps 20 hours per day
- People – the number of hours per day exercising does not impact need for sleep
The body does go through hormonal cycles during the sleep-wake cycle
Sleep might be necessary, but the body does appear capable of functioning when sleep deprived
Does the brain need a period of “rest” in order to recuperate from the day’s mental activities?
- Different people have different sleep needs
Sleep deprived people perform poorly on tasks that require higher-order brain functioning (i.e. “paying attention”)
– greater effort is required
Sleep deprivation – slows down the ability to learn PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 2
The Nature of Sleep
• Sleep is a state of altered consciousness, therefore we can examine the nature of electrical activity in the brain
Polygraph – to measure electrical activity
The area being examined determines the middle initial of the acronym (EEG, EMG, EKG, EOG)
Most relevant to our discussion – EEG – measuring electrical activity in the brain (i.e. Brain Waves)
Frequency & Amplitude
Frequency – the rate of repetition of the waves
Amplitude – the height of the waves
The Nature of Sleep (Brain Activity)
Awake – Beta activity – high F (15-30 Hz) & low A
Drowsy – Alpha activity – med F (8-12 Hz) & med A
Stage 1 – transition between sleep and wakefulness – some Theta activity – EEG activity of 3.5 to 7.5 Hz
As we progress through the stages of sleep, brainwaves become lower in F and higher in A
Stage 2 – an intermediate stage of sleep – predominantly Theta activity – the Theta activity is occasionally interrupted
• Sleep Spindles – occurring 2-5 times per minute – a 1-2 second waxing and waning burst of 12-14 Hz waves.
• K complexes – a single, large upward wave, followed immediately by a single large downward wave.
The sleeper will not see anything, even if the eyes are open.
Stage 3 – the beginning of “deep sleep” – the Theta activity is decreasing in F and increasing in A, therefore turning
into Delta activity.
Stage 4 – consists mainly of Delta activity (high A & low F waves < 3.5 Hz) – the brain’s metabolism slows down to
• Stages 3 and 4 are called slow-wave sleep.
• It takes less than 1 hour to reach our initial period of stage 4 sleep, and it lasts for about 30 minutes.
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep
Low A & high F activity, dreams, rapid eye movements (as if the dreamer is watching the activity in the dream), and
• REM sleep has Beta and Theta activity
• Stages 1 to 4 are also know as non-REM sleep.
Brain Mechanisms of Sleep
Circadian Rhythms - daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness
- not exactly 24 hours (can vary from 16-50 hours)
- we are generally “cued” by environmental stimuli and are therefore able to force ourselves to follow a 24
- Studies without cues are used to determine the length of our circadian rhythms
Basic-Rest-Activity Cycle (BRAC) –another biological “clock” – runs night & day – has approximately a 90 minute
- Regulates/controls many bodily activities (eating, drinking, digestion, waste management)
- Regulates the alternating periods of REM and slow-wave sleep
- Controlled by the Pons (part of the brain stem) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 3
• Pons contain neurons that release acetylcholine to begin a period of REM sleep.
• These acetylcholine-releasing neurons are referred to as “REM-ON” neurons.
• The acetylcholine activates a series of neural circuits – these activate:
– the cerebral cortex and cause dreaming
– Rapid Eye Movements
– A set of inhibitory neurons that act to “paralyze” the body
• The REM-ON neurons are normally inhibited by serotonin-secreting neurons.
• Drugs (i.e. LSD) that decrease the activity of these serotonin-secreting neurons will therefore cause the REM-
ON neurons to be un-inhibited – thus leading to visual hallucinations (waking periods of dreaming)
– (a similar effect is caused by certain insecticides which stimulate the REM-ON neurons).
• Antidepressant drugs increase the activity of these serotonin-secreting neurons and thus suppress REM sleep.
• Sleep is regulated by multiple brain structures and by multiple neurotransmitters – interacting together
– Neurotransmitters: Serotonin, GABA, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Acetylcholine
– Brain Structures: The Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS), Pons, Medulla, Thalamus,
Hypothalamus, and Limbic System
• What is dreaming? What are the different ways that we can study dreams/dreaming?
2 approaches to studying dreaming:
Psychoanalytical – analyzing the content of dreams.
Psychobiological – analyzing the nature and function of REM sleep.
- examining the physiological correlates of REM sleep (brainwaves, eye movements)
Examining the effects on the body and mind when we undergo REM deprivation
Psychoanalytical – Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung
Dreams represent inner conflicts and unconscious desires
We can analyze the content of our dreams in order to better understand these hidden parts of ourselves
• Manifest content – the actual “storyline” of the dream
• Latent content – unconscious desires and conflicts are too “emotional” for us to deal with at face value,
therefore we play these out in a symbolic story – psychoanalysts examine the story for it’s hidden meanings
Do we interpret the Manifest content in order to reveal the Latent content?
Or do we treat the dream as a form of Thematic Apperception Test?
Thematic Apperception Technique (TAT): Ambiguous pictures presented to a participant for interpretation
Presumption that a person projects current needs into the interpretation of a picture
Sigmund Freud – 3 levels to the mind
Conscious: Ego. This is the “I” and it is self-aware and rational
Preconscious: material that is accessible to the conscious mind on demand
Personal Unconscious: half-forgotten memories, repressed traumas and emotions, unacknowledged motives and
Carl Jung – added a fourth level
Collective Unconscious: “the vast historical storehouse of the human race,” a mental reservoir of ideas, symbols
and themes that form the raw material of many of the world’s myths, legends and religious systems PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 4
3 levels of dreaming:
Level 1: pre-conscious mind. Dream images are superficial and can be taken at face value
Level 2: personal unconscious, and uses predominantly symbolic language – much of it is specific to the dreamer
Level 3: Jung called “grand dreams” –material from the collective unconscious, and generally operate only in
symbols and archetypes
“mythological motifs” that emerge from the collective unconscious and reappear in symbolic form in myths,
symbol systems and dreams
Many archetypal dreams involve magical journeys or quests which represent the search for some aspect of
A young hero/heroine who must journey to a foreign land to discover their true self before returning to slay a dragon
or rescue someone in distress
Symbolizing a journey into the unconscious, where the dreamer seeks to find and assimilate fragmented parts of the
psyche in order to achieve a psychological confidence and wholeness that can differentiate their self from collective
Bridge, or the change from day to night, or by the change in seasons
Transformation within the dreamer, opportunities ahead
• Unfamiliar Surroundings
dreamer feels lost, apprehensive or full of regret
dreamer is not yet ready to leave an old way of life behind
dreamer’s descent into the unconscious
complex defenses put up by the conscious Ego to prevent unconscious wishes and desires from emerging into the
way we present ourselves to the outside world and even to ourselves
If the dreamer is unable to remove a mask, or is forced by others to wear one, suggests that the real self is
becoming increasingly obscured
• Car losing control, or searching for the correct road in a strange town
anxiety about loss of direction in life, or loss of personal identity
• Strange reflections in the mirror
identity crisis – sudden sense of not knowing who we are
Closed eyes - unwillingness to face reality
Represents anxiety that we feel that we have climbed too high in our personal life and feel that we are about to
dreamer’s fear of being engulfed by forces hidden within our unconscious mind
• Being Chased
aspects of the self that are struggling for integration into the conscious self
dreamer’s “higher self”
Flying in a “vehicle” (i.e. a bed) desire for adventure, but in combination with a desire for ease and safety
• What is hypnosis? How does this work? Does it work for everyone? What are some of the different ways
we might interpret what is happening during hypnosis (different theories)? What are the different types of
suggestibility, and how do these work? How do people respond to hypnotic control? How might we apply
this? PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 5
- Possibly a state of altered consciousness
- Individual is unusually responsive to suggestions
- Not similar to “sleep” – as EEG measures of the brain show electrical patterns (alpha & beta waves) - that are
more similar to being awake than asleep
- Other types of brain scans (PET & fMRI) indicate that hypnosis can be distinguished from other states of
Can everyone be hypnotized?
• Individual variations in our ability to be hypnotized
10-20% are very susceptible
10% are not susceptible
• Thus, individual differences in our level of suggestibility
Theories of Hypnosis
• Sociocognitive approach
Playing along with the game. Reflects what individuals believe.
• Dissociation approach
conscious awareness of ongoing stimulation being suppressed by suggestions of the hypnotist
Some psychologists believe is hypnosis - divided state of consciousness
Hilgard told hypnotized students they would not experience pain while one arm was in ice-cold water.
But told them that another part of their mind (a hidden part) would be aware and could signal pain by using the free
hand to press a button
Pressed button with other hand to report pain, but verbally said no pain
The Ponzo Illusion and Hypnotic Blindness
The short vertical lines are the same length.
Even when a hypnotic suggestion made the slanted lines disappear, the visual system still perceived the
Types of Suggestibility
Suggestion – hypnotic induction is based on suggestions, that the subject is guided to respond to suggestions, and that
if the subject responds to suggestions it is inferred that hypnosis has been induced.
1. Direct – telling the participant to do something.
Ex. Body sway test – subject standing with eyes closed, experimenter keeps repeating suggestions that
the subject is falling forward (suggestibility = body sway)
People who are highly suggestable would fall right over
2. Indirect – Hypnotist does not specially tell you. You must infer sensation or perception consequent upon
indirect/implied suggestion by the experimenter.
Ex. Odor test – a set of labelled bottles – some with smell and some odorless (but with labels)
People who are highly suggestable would notice a strong odor
Types of Responses to Hypnotic Control PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 6
• Subjects hypnotized and given a suggestion of arm rigidity. Says that arm CANNOT be bent Then asked to
bend the arm.
Tremblers – exert muscular effort to bend the arm and kept it straight (think you are bending but not)
Non-tremblers – passively kept arm straight
• Suggests individual differences in hypnotic responding Ex. subjects may be using different mental processes
– dissociaters – non trembler vs. fantasizers - trembler
Applications of Hypnosis
• Hypnosis is widely used in psychotherapy, medicine, dentistry, criminal investigations, and sports.
• Hypnosis can reduce the experience of pain in some people (acute pain and chronic pain).
• Sometimes hypnosis is used to enhance people’s ability to remember.
Under hypnosis some people
▪ remember more specific crime details
▪ misremember more false crime details
• What are psychoactive substances? What are the different categories of drugs (categories, as well as
specific drugs within those categories), what are their effects?
o I recommend creating a table (organized by “category of drug”) that includes the various categories,
the sub-types, their effects and side effects, what they affect, and the drug names. Make one table that
includes the information from the text and lectures.
drugs that act on the nervous system – one of the main effects is to alter consciousness
Most increase dopamine levels in the brain’s reward pathways (in the Ventral Tegmental Area and Nucleus
Types of Drugs
• Narcotics (Opiates)
Examples: opium, morphine, heroin, codeine, methadone, lemon-poppy seed muffins, Oxycontin
Effects: induce relaxation, provide relief from anxiety and pain (mimicking the effects of the body’s naturally
Side Effects: lethargy, nausea, impaired mental and motor functioning
• Depressants (Sedatives & Alcohol)
Examples: Alcohol, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, and also Inhalants (i.e. gasoline, amyl and butyl nitrate
Effects: decreased Central Nervous System activity, relaxation, impaired thinking and motor skills
Examples: cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, caffeine
Effects: activate the Central Nervous System, feelings of euphoria/happiness, psychomotor agitation or
retardation, rapid heartbeat, anxiety, paranoia, insomnia
• Hallucinogens and PCP (phencyclidine)
Examples: peyote (a cactus), phencyclidine (PCP), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
Effects: act on the CNS and cause distortions in sensory perception, do not substantially change level of arousal
• Cannabis (the hemp plant)
Often classified as Hallucinogens (but with milder effects), may also be classified as depressants
Examples: marijuana (the leaves of the plant), hashish (a dried extract from the plant) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 7
Effects: THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient, has a depressant effect on the CNS, may have either
a depressant or stimulant effect, enhanced sensory experience, relaxation, anxiety and paranoia
• MDMA (Ecstasy)
Sometimes classified as a Hallucinogen, or an Amphetamine, or a Stimulant
Effects: increased energy, decreased social inhibitions. Impacts the serotonin systems in the CNS and has been
shown to have a lasting impact on attention, memory and learning. Also correlated with depression, anxiety,
• What are the implications of psychoactive drug use (addiction, tolerance, dependence)?
Psychoactive Drug Use
• All psychoactive drugs have both physiological and psychological effects that cannot easily be separated.
• Physical Dependence
the body has become accustomed to the presence of the drug, and when the drug is discontinued it produces a
• Psychological Dependence
desire to continue the drug for it’s emotional effects
refers to the user’s tendency to center life on the drug
• What are the substance use disorders, and how do we diagnose these?
DSM: Substance Related and Addictive Disorders
DSM: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth edition.
• Published in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
• Includes diagnostic criteria for all forms of mental illness.
• The Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders are divided into two groups:
Substance Use Disorders
i.e. intoxication, withdrawal, delirium, etc.
DSM: Substance Use Disorders
• The substance-related disorders involve 10 different classes of drugs:
7. Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics
8. Stimulants (amphetamines, cocaine, etc.)
10. Other substances
DSM: Substance Use Disorders
The use of drugs produce a “high”. They are so intense that normal activities may be neglected.
• also includes gambling disorder –gambling behaviours active reward systems similar to those activated by
drugs of abuse - produce some behavioural symptoms that appear comparable to those produced by the
substance use disorders. PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 8
• Cognitive, behavioural, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues using the
substance despite significant substance-related problems.
• Underlying change in brain circuits that may persist beyond detoxification, particularly in individuals with
severe disorders. The behavioural effects of these brain changes may be exhibited in the repeated relapses
and intense drug craving when the individuals are exposed to drug-related stimuli.
• A problematic pattern of ____ use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at
least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period.
• Impaired Control
(1) Individual takes the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally intended.
(2) Persistent desire to cut down or regulate substance use and is unsuccessful in efforts to decrease or discontinue
(3) Investing a lot of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or recovering from it.
(4) Craving is manifested by an intense desire or urge for the drug
• Social Impairment
(5) Failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
(6) Continues substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems
(7) Important social, occupational, or recreational activities may be given up or reduced because of substance use.
The individual may withdraw from family activities and hobbies in order to use the substance.
• Risky Use
(8) Use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
(9) Continue substance use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological
problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance.
• Pharmacological Criteria
(10) Tolerance is signaled by requiring increased dose of the substance to achieve the desired effect or a markedly
reduced effect when the usual dose is consumed.
(11) Withdrawal is a syndrome that occurs when blood or tissue concentrations of a substance decline in an
individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance. After developing withdrawal symptoms, the
individual is likely to consume the substance to relieve the symptoms.
• Code based on current severity:
Mild: Presence of 2-3 symptoms.
Moderate: Presence of 4-5 symptoms.
Severe: Presence of 6 or more symptoms.
• What might cause addiction? What does the research show about the genetic risk for alcoholism?
Two Theories of The Causes of Addiction
• Disease Model (diathesis-stress)
The addiction is believed to be caused by genetic factors and/or early environment (a diathesis) that is triggered
by life-stress (stress)
describes addictions as biologically based, lifelong diseases that involve a loss of control over behaviour.
• Non-Disease Model (learning)
Addition may be a habitual response and source of gratification that developed in social situations.
Genetic Susceptibility to Alcoholism
• Research has demonstrated a gene-environment interaction (diathesis-stress) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 9
• A series of studies examined males who were at (or not) genetic risk (based on diagnosis of close relatives) –
examining two variants of alcoholism
Type 1 – relatively mild abuse, minimal criminality
Type 2 – early onset, violence & criminality
• Multiple variables in their rearing environments were assessed
• Individuals at genetic risk for Type 1, were more likely to be diagnosed than controls, but this was
exaggerated if they had also been exposed to high-risk environments
• Individuals at genetic risk for Type 2, were more likely to be diagnosed than controls, but early environment
did not increase risk
• Demonstrating that the same environmental risk factors can have different effects depending upon the
Chapter 5 (text)
• What happens when sleep becomes disturbed? (deprivation, loss, disorders & problems)
o You will be responsible for knowing about the types of drugs and the specific drugs that are mentioned
in the Lecture Notes and in Table 5.4 (page 217).
Chapter 6 (lectures)
• What is learning? How does this work? What is the purpose? What are some of the core aspects of the
process of learning (i.e. orienting response, habituation, sensitization)?
• An adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience.
• It is the effect on behaviour of certain types of interactions between the individual and the environment (or
between environmental events), includes all sources of stimulation impinging on the individual’s sense
receptors within a given period.
• Making connections (associations) between events.
Behavioural theories attempt to relate units of behaviour, called responses, to units of the environment,
• Focusing upon explaining current behaviour and predicting future behaviour (relating future stimuli to future
Evolutionary Theories focus on the adaptive aspects of learning to survival.
Organisms that were able to “learn” (i.e. determine relations among events) were able to survive in a changing
Learning still occurs even if the environment is not changing – the organism “learns” that the environment has not
• Learning cannot be observed directly, only inferred from changes in behaviour.
• Learning can occur even when there is no noticeable change in behaviour.
i.e. Stop, drop & roll
Orienting Response – our attention is drawn to a novel stimulus
Habituation – learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly
(whistle vs. Baby’s cry)
Ignoring unimportant stimuli is adaptive for survival
Sensitization – based on some prior stimulus, we become more responsive (more sensitive) to a subsequent
stimulus. Not necessarily the same stimulus. (horror movie creaking floor)
- Temporary PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 10
The result of stimuli that are presented quickly in a short period
Results when stimuli are spread over a longer period
• What is classical/Pavlovian conditioning? How does this work? What are the components of this process?
How do Blocking and Higher-Order Conditioning work, how are they different? What are the different
types of CRs?
Pavlov & his dogs
Classical Conditioning involves learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur.
• Also called “Pavlovian Conditioning”
• Originally studying the mechanisms underlying digestion (not psychology)
• Realized that the dogs had learned to anticipate the food based on environmental stimuli (the presence of the
dish or the person doing the feeding)
• UN-conditioned Stimulus (UCS) – a stimulus that naturally elicits some response.
• UN-conditioned Response (UCR) – a response that is naturally elicited by the stimulus.
Pavlov’s dogs – naturally salivate in the presence of food
• Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – some stimulus that was previously neutral (i.e. it did not automatically elicit
the response) – through repeated pairings with the UCS – becomes a “cue” for the response (what was
previously known as the UCR) – i.e. the CS now elicits the response.
But this response is no longer referred to as the UCR
• Conditioned Response (CR) – the response that was previously referred to as the UCR, when it is elicited by
the CS, is now referred to as the CR (but it’s still the same response).
Types of CRs
Excitatory Conditioned Response – (what we have typically been discussing thus far) – The CS signals that
the UCS is about to occur.
Pavlov’s assistant walking into the room (the CS), prior to feeding the dogs (the UCS)
Inhibitory Conditioned Response – when the CS signals the absence of the UCS
Imagine if Pavlov had a second lab assistant – who’s job it was to observe the dogs in between feedings – thus,
when this assistant entered the lab, it would signal a period of “no food”
• How might classical conditioning lead to the development of a phobia?
Conditioned Emotional Responses
• Many stimuli - arouse emotional responses
• Phobias - example of a conditioned emotional response
• Phobias are an unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations, learned through classical conditioning
Either through direct experience, or through observation of the experience of another (seeing, hearing about,
reading) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 11
The Development of Fears & Phobias
• Watson & Rayner – “Little Albert B”
Demonstrated the establishment of a conditioned emotional response
white rat alone - not afraid
white rat paired with loud noise
white rat alone - afraid
fur coat alone -afraid
• What is operant conditioning? How does this work
Operant Conditioning – Focusing on the learning that occurs when we pair environmental stimuli with our own
behaviour ( the organism learns by “operating” on the environment)
• Based upon Thorndike’s Law of Effect.
The consequences of a behaviour effect whether that behaviour will be repeated or not.
- Behaviour that leads to positive outcomes has a greater tendency of being repeated.
- Behaviour that leads to negative outcomes is less likely to be repeated.
- Pioneering work on Operant Conditioning
- The Operant Chamber (the Skinner Box) & the Cumulative Recorder were immensely valuable to being able
to study animal behaviour
• The presence of the Discriminative (or Antecedent) Stimulus indicates that our RESPONSE will elicit a
• The consequence could be positive or negative.
- the changed meaning of “response” (Previously, the organism’s reaction. Now, the organism’s behaviour,
which leads to the consequences)
Appetitive Stimulus – stimulus that is good or desirable
Aversive Stimulus – stimulus that is unpleasant or painful
Primary Reinforcers – a “natural” reinforcer (i.e. food, water, sex)
Secondary Reinforcers – not satisfying, but becomes a reinforcer through conditioning. Token reinforcers (i.e.
Types of Reinforcement/Punishment
Reinforcement – increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated
Positive Reinforcement – a response is regularly and reliably followed by the onset of an appetitive stimulus
- Getting something good by doing something good.
Negative Reinforcement – a response is regularly and reliably followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus
- Organism does the behaviour and something bad goes away.
Punishment – decreases the likelihood that a response will be repeated
Punishment – a response is followed by the onset of an aversive stimulus (a punisher). Standard punishment.
Followed by something unpleasant. PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 12
Response Cost – a response is followed by the removal of an appetitive stimulus. Do something bad and
something good is taken away. Ex. Doing something bad and no ice cream for desert.
Extinction – a decrease in the likelihood that a response will be repeated.
The response had to have been previously reinforced.
The reinforcement is no longer paired with the response, hence the frequency of the response decreases.
Generalization & Discrimination
Similar concepts to Classical Conditioning
Generalization – giving the response to stimuli that are similar to the Discriminative (or Antecedent) Stimulus.
Discrimination – learning to distinguish between different types/forms of Discriminative Stimuli.
What about creating complex, or novel behaviours?
Shaping – reinforcing any response that successfully approximates the desired response.
Want a rat to press a lever?
Reinforce any movement toward the lever,
Then, only reinforce touching the lever,
Then, only reinforce pressing the lever
Do we have to reinforce every behaviour?
Intermittent Reinforcement – reinforcing some, but not all, of the responses.
This leads the organism to expect the occasional unrewarded response – and hence the organism is more willing
to keep repeating the response even when not reinforced
The response is more resistant to extinction
Schedules of Reinforcement
Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement –based on keeping consistent a ratio between number of responses and the number
• Fixed-Ratio Schedule – reinforcement scheduled to occur after a certain number of responses (i.e. a food
pellet delivered every 5 press of the lever)
• Variable-Ratio Schedule – a reinforcement is scheduled to occur an average amount of times. The
occurrence of the reinforcement is variable (but the reinforcement occurs after a certain average number of
Interval Schedule of Reinforcement– based on reinforcing the first response that occurs after a certain period of
time has elapsed
• Fixed-Interval Schedule – after a fixed amount of time has passed, the very next response is rewarded
• Variable-Interval Schedule – after a variable amount of time (keeping constant a certain average amount of
time), the very next response is rewarded
• How do we condition complex behaviours? The Garcia & Koelling study.
The Conditioning of Complex Behaviours – Are we preprogrammed to be sensitive to aversive stimuli?
Taste Aversion – do we have a biological predisposition to avoid/dislike foods that have previously been associated
• Is it possible that we (and other animals – i.e. rats), have the “pre-wired” ability to more easily make
associations between certain kinds of environmental stimuli?
Conditioning of Flavour Aversions - Garcia & Koelling (1966)
Tested the drinking behaviour of rats in cages
DV – the amount of water they would drink (compared to normal) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 13
IV – four conditions
Rats – taking a sip of water was paired with: either (1) a sugary taste, or (2) a buzzing noise with a flashing light
These two “types of water” (i.e. “bright-noisy” water, and “tasty” water) were paired with two types of aversive
stimuli (shock, or illness)
Results: rats in group 1 and group 4 had reduced levels of drinking in a follow up test
• Proving that not just any CS can be paired with any UCS.
Learning is facilitated when the CS and the UCS make sense together
Rats were able to learn about associations between internal sensations (illness) and novel tastes
The interval between the CS and the UCS can be quite long
• What is observational learning? How does this work? What was Albert Bandura’s original Bobo doll
study? What did the study show?
Observational Learning: learning that occurs without direct experience, solely through observing the actions of
• Albert Bandura – the famous “Bobo doll experiment”
Three factors that influence the effectiveness of a model
1. Characteristics of the model – more likely to be influenced by someone who we believe is similar to ourselves.
2. Attributes of the observer – people who are low in self-esteem, highly dependent, or highly motivated are more
likely to follow a model
3. Reward consequences associated with a behaviour – people are more likely to emulate a model if they believe
that such actions will lead to positive result