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PSYC 1001
Chris Motz

PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 1 PSYC1001 - Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 5 (lectures) • What is consciousness? What are the different levels of awareness (states of consciousness)? States of Consciousness Consciousness – “awareness” (of our external and internal environments) Unconscious Freud – most of our thoughts are out of our awareness (thoughts, desires, emotions that may be unacceptable to our conscious mind) Medical – our consciousness has been interrupted by some medical condition/trauma – body may still show some level of reactivity Subconscious Awareness – processing just beneath the surface of our awareness (dreams, automatic processes) Primary Awareness - Uncontrolled Awareness – daydreaming (letting your mind wander) processing requiring minimal attention (riding a bike) - Controlled Awareness –conscious attention is focused (focusing your attention) Self-Awareness – “metacognition” – thinking about your own thinking processes Altered States of Awareness – any mental state that is different from normal (due to fatigue, drugs, trauma, hypnosis, etc.) • What is sleep? What are the functions of sleep? What are the different stages of sleep? What is happening in the brain during sleep? What are the brain mechanisms that regulate sleep? Sleep Sleep – during sleep we are not unconscious - “altered” consciousness. • Given that sleep is almost universal in the animal kingdom, it must therefore serve some useful function. During sleep, we are at risk of predation. Does sleep serve a physical recuperation function or a mental recuperation function? Function of Sleep Physical Recuperation Is sleep necessary in order to repair the strain put on the body from the day’s activities? - Giant sloth – sleeps 20 hours per day - People – the number of hours per day exercising does not impact need for sleep The body does go through hormonal cycles during the sleep-wake cycle Sleep might be necessary, but the body does appear capable of functioning when sleep deprived Mental Recuperation Does the brain need a period of “rest” in order to recuperate from the day’s mental activities? - Different people have different sleep needs Sleep deprived people perform poorly on tasks that require higher-order brain functioning (i.e. “paying attention”) – greater effort is required Sleep deprivation – slows down the ability to learn PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 2 The Nature of Sleep • Sleep is a state of altered consciousness, therefore we can examine the nature of electrical activity in the brain and body Polygraph – to measure electrical activity The area being examined determines the middle initial of the acronym (EEG, EMG, EKG, EOG) Most relevant to our discussion – EEG – measuring electrical activity in the brain (i.e. Brain Waves) Frequency & Amplitude Frequency – the rate of repetition of the waves Amplitude – the height of the waves The Nature of Sleep (Brain Activity) Awake – Beta activity – high F (15-30 Hz) & low A Drowsy – Alpha activity – med F (8-12 Hz) & med A Stage 1 – transition between sleep and wakefulness – some Theta activity – EEG activity of 3.5 to 7.5 Hz As we progress through the stages of sleep, brainwaves become lower in F and higher in A Stage 2 – an intermediate stage of sleep – predominantly Theta activity – the Theta activity is occasionally interrupted by: • Sleep Spindles – occurring 2-5 times per minute – a 1-2 second waxing and waning burst of 12-14 Hz waves. • K complexes – a single, large upward wave, followed immediately by a single large downward wave. The sleeper will not see anything, even if the eyes are open. Stage 3 – the beginning of “deep sleep” – the Theta activity is decreasing in F and increasing in A, therefore turning into Delta activity. Stage 4 – consists mainly of Delta activity (high A & low F waves < 3.5 Hz) – the brain’s metabolism slows down to approx 75% • Stages 3 and 4 are called slow-wave sleep. • It takes less than 1 hour to reach our initial period of stage 4 sleep, and it lasts for about 30 minutes. Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep Low A & high F activity, dreams, rapid eye movements (as if the dreamer is watching the activity in the dream), and muscular paralysis. • REM sleep has Beta and Theta activity • Stages 1 to 4 are also know as non-REM sleep. Brain Mechanisms of Sleep Circadian Rhythms - daily cycles of sleep and wakefulness - not exactly 24 hours (can vary from 16-50 hours) - we are generally “cued” by environmental stimuli and are therefore able to force ourselves to follow a 24 hour clock - Studies without cues are used to determine the length of our circadian rhythms Basic-Rest-Activity Cycle (BRAC) –another biological “clock” – runs night & day – has approximately a 90 minute cycle - Regulates/controls many bodily activities (eating, drinking, digestion, waste management) - Regulates the alternating periods of REM and slow-wave sleep - Controlled by the Pons (part of the brain stem) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 3 • Pons contain neurons that release acetylcholine to begin a period of REM sleep. • These acetylcholine-releasing neurons are referred to as “REM-ON” neurons. • The acetylcholine activates a series of neural circuits – these activate: – the cerebral cortex and cause dreaming – Rapid Eye Movements – A set of inhibitory neurons that act to “paralyze” the body • The REM-ON neurons are normally inhibited by serotonin-secreting neurons. • Drugs (i.e. LSD) that decrease the activity of these serotonin-secreting neurons will therefore cause the REM- ON neurons to be un-inhibited – thus leading to visual hallucinations (waking periods of dreaming) – (a similar effect is caused by certain insecticides which stimulate the REM-ON neurons). • Antidepressant drugs increase the activity of these serotonin-secreting neurons and thus suppress REM sleep. • Sleep is regulated by multiple brain structures and by multiple neurotransmitters – interacting together – Neurotransmitters: Serotonin, GABA, Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Acetylcholine – Brain Structures: The Ascending Reticular Activating System (ARAS), Pons, Medulla, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Limbic System • What is dreaming? What are the different ways that we can study dreams/dreaming? Dreaming 2 approaches to studying dreaming: Psychoanalytical – analyzing the content of dreams. Psychobiological – analyzing the nature and function of REM sleep. Psychobiological - examining the physiological correlates of REM sleep (brainwaves, eye movements) Examining the effects on the body and mind when we undergo REM deprivation Psychoanalytical – Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung Dreams represent inner conflicts and unconscious desires We can analyze the content of our dreams in order to better understand these hidden parts of ourselves • Manifest content – the actual “storyline” of the dream • Latent content – unconscious desires and conflicts are too “emotional” for us to deal with at face value, therefore we play these out in a symbolic story – psychoanalysts examine the story for it’s hidden meanings Dream Interpretation Do we interpret the Manifest content in order to reveal the Latent content? Or do we treat the dream as a form of Thematic Apperception Test? Thematic Apperception Technique (TAT): Ambiguous pictures presented to a participant for interpretation Presumption that a person projects current needs into the interpretation of a picture Sigmund Freud – 3 levels to the mind Conscious: Ego. This is the “I” and it is self-aware and rational Preconscious: material that is accessible to the conscious mind on demand Personal Unconscious: half-forgotten memories, repressed traumas and emotions, unacknowledged motives and urges Carl Jung – added a fourth level Collective Unconscious: “the vast historical storehouse of the human race,” a mental reservoir of ideas, symbols and themes that form the raw material of many of the world’s myths, legends and religious systems PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 4 3 levels of dreaming: Level 1: pre-conscious mind. Dream images are superficial and can be taken at face value Level 2: personal unconscious, and uses predominantly symbolic language – much of it is specific to the dreamer Level 3: Jung called “grand dreams” –material from the collective unconscious, and generally operate only in symbols and archetypes Jung’s Archetypes “mythological motifs” that emerge from the collective unconscious and reappear in symbolic form in myths, symbol systems and dreams Many archetypal dreams involve magical journeys or quests which represent the search for some aspect of ourselves A young hero/heroine who must journey to a foreign land to discover their true self before returning to slay a dragon or rescue someone in distress Symbolizing a journey into the unconscious, where the dreamer seeks to find and assimilate fragmented parts of the psyche in order to achieve a psychological confidence and wholeness that can differentiate their self from collective society Dream Language • Transformation/Change Bridge, or the change from day to night, or by the change in seasons Transformation within the dreamer, opportunities ahead • Unfamiliar Surroundings dreamer feels lost, apprehensive or full of regret dreamer is not yet ready to leave an old way of life behind • Mazes dreamer’s descent into the unconscious complex defenses put up by the conscious Ego to prevent unconscious wishes and desires from emerging into the conscious • Masks way we present ourselves to the outside world and even to ourselves If the dreamer is unable to remove a mask, or is forced by others to wear one, suggests that the real self is becoming increasingly obscured • Car losing control, or searching for the correct road in a strange town anxiety about loss of direction in life, or loss of personal identity • Strange reflections in the mirror identity crisis – sudden sense of not knowing who we are Closed eyes - unwillingness to face reality • Falling Represents anxiety that we feel that we have climbed too high in our personal life and feel that we are about to fall • Drowning dreamer’s fear of being engulfed by forces hidden within our unconscious mind • Being Chased aspects of the self that are struggling for integration into the conscious self • Flying dreamer’s “higher self” Flying in a “vehicle” (i.e. a bed) desire for adventure, but in combination with a desire for ease and safety • What is hypnosis? How does this work? Does it work for everyone? What are some of the different ways we might interpret what is happening during hypnosis (different theories)? What are the different types of suggestibility, and how do these work? How do people respond to hypnotic control? How might we apply this? PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 5 Hypnosis Hypnosis - Possibly a state of altered consciousness - Individual is unusually responsive to suggestions - Not similar to “sleep” – as EEG measures of the brain show electrical patterns (alpha & beta waves) - that are more similar to being awake than asleep - Other types of brain scans (PET & fMRI) indicate that hypnosis can be distinguished from other states of consciousness Can everyone be hypnotized? • Individual variations in our ability to be hypnotized 10-20% are very susceptible 10% are not susceptible • Thus, individual differences in our level of suggestibility Theories of Hypnosis • Sociocognitive approach Playing along with the game. Reflects what individuals believe. • Dissociation approach conscious awareness of ongoing stimulation being suppressed by suggestions of the hypnotist Divided Consciousness? Some psychologists believe is hypnosis - divided state of consciousness Hilgard told hypnotized students they would not experience pain while one arm was in ice-cold water. But told them that another part of their mind (a hidden part) would be aware and could signal pain by using the free hand to press a button Pressed button with other hand to report pain, but verbally said no pain The Ponzo Illusion and Hypnotic Blindness The short vertical lines are the same length. Even when a hypnotic suggestion made the slanted lines disappear, the visual system still perceived the illusion. Types of Suggestibility Suggestion – hypnotic induction is based on suggestions, that the subject is guided to respond to suggestions, and that if the subject responds to suggestions it is inferred that hypnosis has been induced. 1. Direct – telling the participant to do something. Ex. Body sway test – subject standing with eyes closed, experimenter keeps repeating suggestions that the subject is falling forward (suggestibility = body sway) People who are highly suggestable would fall right over 2. Indirect – Hypnotist does not specially tell you. You must infer sensation or perception consequent upon indirect/implied suggestion by the experimenter. Ex. Odor test – a set of labelled bottles – some with smell and some odorless (but with labels) People who are highly suggestable would notice a strong odor Types of Responses to Hypnotic Control PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 6 • Subjects hypnotized and given a suggestion of arm rigidity. Says that arm CANNOT be bent Then asked to bend the arm. Tremblers – exert muscular effort to bend the arm and kept it straight (think you are bending but not) Non-tremblers – passively kept arm straight • Suggests individual differences in hypnotic responding Ex. subjects may be using different mental processes – dissociaters – non trembler vs. fantasizers - trembler Applications of Hypnosis • Hypnosis is widely used in psychotherapy, medicine, dentistry, criminal investigations, and sports. • Hypnosis can reduce the experience of pain in some people (acute pain and chronic pain). • Sometimes hypnosis is used to enhance people’s ability to remember. Under hypnosis some people ▪ remember more specific crime details ▪ misremember more false crime details • What are psychoactive substances? What are the different categories of drugs (categories, as well as specific drugs within those categories), what are their effects? o I recommend creating a table (organized by “category of drug”) that includes the various categories, the sub-types, their effects and side effects, what they affect, and the drug names. Make one table that includes the information from the text and lectures. Psychoactive Drugs drugs that act on the nervous system – one of the main effects is to alter consciousness Most increase dopamine levels in the brain’s reward pathways (in the Ventral Tegmental Area and Nucleus Accumbens) Types of Drugs • Narcotics (Opiates) Examples: opium, morphine, heroin, codeine, methadone, lemon-poppy seed muffins, Oxycontin Effects: induce relaxation, provide relief from anxiety and pain (mimicking the effects of the body’s naturally occurring endorphins) Side Effects: lethargy, nausea, impaired mental and motor functioning • Depressants (Sedatives & Alcohol) Examples: Alcohol, Barbiturates, Benzodiazepines, and also Inhalants (i.e. gasoline, amyl and butyl nitrate “poppers”) Effects: decreased Central Nervous System activity, relaxation, impaired thinking and motor skills • Stimulants Examples: cocaine, amphetamines, nicotine, caffeine Effects: activate the Central Nervous System, feelings of euphoria/happiness, psychomotor agitation or retardation, rapid heartbeat, anxiety, paranoia, insomnia • Hallucinogens and PCP (phencyclidine) Examples: peyote (a cactus), phencyclidine (PCP), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) Effects: act on the CNS and cause distortions in sensory perception, do not substantially change level of arousal • Cannabis (the hemp plant) Often classified as Hallucinogens (but with milder effects), may also be classified as depressants Examples: marijuana (the leaves of the plant), hashish (a dried extract from the plant) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 7 Effects: THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) is the active ingredient, has a depressant effect on the CNS, may have either a depressant or stimulant effect, enhanced sensory experience, relaxation, anxiety and paranoia • MDMA (Ecstasy) Sometimes classified as a Hallucinogen, or an Amphetamine, or a Stimulant MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine) Effects: increased energy, decreased social inhibitions. Impacts the serotonin systems in the CNS and has been shown to have a lasting impact on attention, memory and learning. Also correlated with depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms. • What are the implications of psychoactive drug use (addiction, tolerance, dependence)? Psychoactive Drug Use • All psychoactive drugs have both physiological and psychological effects that cannot easily be separated. • Physical Dependence the body has become accustomed to the presence of the drug, and when the drug is discontinued it produces a withdrawal effect • Psychological Dependence desire to continue the drug for it’s emotional effects refers to the user’s tendency to center life on the drug • What are the substance use disorders, and how do we diagnose these? DSM: Substance Related and Addictive Disorders DSM: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth edition. • Published in 2013 by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). • Includes diagnostic criteria for all forms of mental illness. • The Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders are divided into two groups: Substance Use Disorders Substance-Induced Disorders i.e. intoxication, withdrawal, delirium, etc. DSM: Substance Use Disorders • The substance-related disorders involve 10 different classes of drugs: 1. Alcohol 2. Caffeine 3. Cannabis 4. Hallucinogens 5. Inhalants 6. Opioids 7. Sedatives, Hypnotics, and Anxiolytics 8. Stimulants (amphetamines, cocaine, etc.) 9. Tobacco 10. Other substances DSM: Substance Use Disorders The use of drugs produce a “high”. They are so intense that normal activities may be neglected. • also includes gambling disorder –gambling behaviours active reward systems similar to those activated by drugs of abuse - produce some behavioural symptoms that appear comparable to those produced by the substance use disorders. PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 8 • Cognitive, behavioural, and physiological symptoms indicating that the individual continues using the substance despite significant substance-related problems. • Underlying change in brain circuits that may persist beyond detoxification, particularly in individuals with severe disorders. The behavioural effects of these brain changes may be exhibited in the repeated relapses and intense drug craving when the individuals are exposed to drug-related stimuli. Diagnostic Criteria: • A problematic pattern of ____ use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period. • Impaired Control (1) Individual takes the substance in larger amounts or over a longer period than was originally intended. (2) Persistent desire to cut down or regulate substance use and is unsuccessful in efforts to decrease or discontinue use. (3) Investing a lot of time obtaining the substance, using the substance, or recovering from it. (4) Craving is manifested by an intense desire or urge for the drug • Social Impairment (5) Failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home. (6) Continues substance use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems (7) Important social, occupational, or recreational activities may be given up or reduced because of substance use. The individual may withdraw from family activities and hobbies in order to use the substance. • Risky Use (8) Use in situations in which it is physically hazardous. (9) Continue substance use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance. • Pharmacological Criteria (10) Tolerance is signaled by requiring increased dose of the substance to achieve the desired effect or a markedly reduced effect when the usual dose is consumed. (11) Withdrawal is a syndrome that occurs when blood or tissue concentrations of a substance decline in an individual who had maintained prolonged heavy use of the substance. After developing withdrawal symptoms, the individual is likely to consume the substance to relieve the symptoms. • Code based on current severity: Mild: Presence of 2-3 symptoms. Moderate: Presence of 4-5 symptoms. Severe: Presence of 6 or more symptoms. • What might cause addiction? What does the research show about the genetic risk for alcoholism? Two Theories of The Causes of Addiction • Disease Model (diathesis-stress) The addiction is believed to be caused by genetic factors and/or early environment (a diathesis) that is triggered by life-stress (stress) describes addictions as biologically based, lifelong diseases that involve a loss of control over behaviour. • Non-Disease Model (learning) Addition may be a habitual response and source of gratification that developed in social situations. Genetic Susceptibility to Alcoholism • Research has demonstrated a gene-environment interaction (diathesis-stress) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 9 • A series of studies examined males who were at (or not) genetic risk (based on diagnosis of close relatives) – examining two variants of alcoholism Type 1 – relatively mild abuse, minimal criminality Type 2 – early onset, violence & criminality • Multiple variables in their rearing environments were assessed • Individuals at genetic risk for Type 1, were more likely to be diagnosed than controls, but this was exaggerated if they had also been exposed to high-risk environments • Individuals at genetic risk for Type 2, were more likely to be diagnosed than controls, but early environment did not increase risk • Demonstrating that the same environmental risk factors can have different effects depending upon the individual’s genotype. Chapter 5 (text) • What happens when sleep becomes disturbed? (deprivation, loss, disorders & problems) o You will be responsible for knowing about the types of drugs and the specific drugs that are mentioned in the Lecture Notes and in Table 5.4 (page 217). Chapter 6 (lectures) • What is learning? How does this work? What is the purpose? What are some of the core aspects of the process of learning (i.e. orienting response, habituation, sensitization)? Learning • An adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience. • It is the effect on behaviour of certain types of interactions between the individual and the environment (or between environmental events), includes all sources of stimulation impinging on the individual’s sense receptors within a given period. • Making connections (associations) between events. Behavioural theories attempt to relate units of behaviour, called responses, to units of the environment, called stimuli. • Focusing upon explaining current behaviour and predicting future behaviour (relating future stimuli to future responses) Evolutionary Theories focus on the adaptive aspects of learning to survival. Organisms that were able to “learn” (i.e. determine relations among events) were able to survive in a changing environment. Learning still occurs even if the environment is not changing – the organism “learns” that the environment has not changed. • Learning cannot be observed directly, only inferred from changes in behaviour. • Learning can occur even when there is no noticeable change in behaviour. i.e. Stop, drop & roll Habituation Orienting Response – our attention is drawn to a novel stimulus Habituation – learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly (whistle vs. Baby’s cry) Ignoring unimportant stimuli is adaptive for survival Sensitization – based on some prior stimulus, we become more responsive (more sensitive) to a subsequent stimulus. Not necessarily the same stimulus. (horror movie  creaking floor) Short-term Habituation: - Temporary PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 10 The result of stimuli that are presented quickly in a short period Long-term Habituation: - Lasting Results when stimuli are spread over a longer period • What is classical/Pavlovian conditioning? How does this work? What are the components of this process? How do Blocking and Higher-Order Conditioning work, how are they different? What are the different types of CRs? Classical Conditioning Pavlov & his dogs Classical Conditioning involves learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur. • Also called “Pavlovian Conditioning” Pavlov’s Discovery • Originally studying the mechanisms underlying digestion (not psychology) • Realized that the dogs had learned to anticipate the food based on environmental stimuli (the presence of the dish or the person doing the feeding) Classical Conditioning • UN-conditioned Stimulus (UCS) – a stimulus that naturally elicits some response. • UN-conditioned Response (UCR) – a response that is naturally elicited by the stimulus. Pavlov’s dogs – naturally salivate in the presence of food • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – some stimulus that was previously neutral (i.e. it did not automatically elicit the response) – through repeated pairings with the UCS – becomes a “cue” for the response (what was previously known as the UCR) – i.e. the CS now elicits the response. But this response is no longer referred to as the UCR • Conditioned Response (CR) – the response that was previously referred to as the UCR, when it is elicited by the CS, is now referred to as the CR (but it’s still the same response). Types of CRs Excitatory Conditioned Response – (what we have typically been discussing thus far) – The CS signals that the UCS is about to occur. Pavlov’s assistant walking into the room (the CS), prior to feeding the dogs (the UCS) Inhibitory Conditioned Response – when the CS signals the absence of the UCS Imagine if Pavlov had a second lab assistant – who’s job it was to observe the dogs in between feedings – thus, when this assistant entered the lab, it would signal a period of “no food” • How might classical conditioning lead to the development of a phobia? Conditioned Emotional Responses • Many stimuli - arouse emotional responses • Phobias - example of a conditioned emotional response • Phobias are an unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations, learned through classical conditioning Either through direct experience, or through observation of the experience of another (seeing, hearing about, reading) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 11 The Development of Fears & Phobias • Watson & Rayner – “Little Albert B” Demonstrated the establishment of a conditioned emotional response white rat alone - not afraid white rat paired with loud noise white rat alone - afraid fur coat alone -afraid • What is operant conditioning? How does this work • Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning – Focusing on the learning that occurs when we pair environmental stimuli with our own behaviour ( the organism learns by “operating” on the environment) • Based upon Thorndike’s Law of Effect. The consequences of a behaviour effect whether that behaviour will be repeated or not. - Behaviour that leads to positive outcomes has a greater tendency of being repeated. - Behaviour that leads to negative outcomes is less likely to be repeated. Skinner - Pioneering work on Operant Conditioning - The Operant Chamber (the Skinner Box) & the Cumulative Recorder were immensely valuable to being able to study animal behaviour The Three-Term-Contingency • The presence of the Discriminative (or Antecedent) Stimulus indicates that our RESPONSE will elicit a particular CONSEQUENCE. • The consequence could be positive or negative. - the changed meaning of “response” (Previously, the organism’s reaction. Now, the organism’s behaviour, which leads to the consequences) Operant Conditioning Appetitive Stimulus – stimulus that is good or desirable Aversive Stimulus – stimulus that is unpleasant or painful Primary Reinforcers – a “natural” reinforcer (i.e. food, water, sex) Secondary Reinforcers – not satisfying, but becomes a reinforcer through conditioning. Token reinforcers (i.e. money) Types of Reinforcement/Punishment Reinforcement – increases the likelihood that a response will be repeated Positive Reinforcement – a response is regularly and reliably followed by the onset of an appetitive stimulus (something desirable) - Getting something good by doing something good. Negative Reinforcement – a response is regularly and reliably followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus - Organism does the behaviour and something bad goes away. Punishment – decreases the likelihood that a response will be repeated Punishment – a response is followed by the onset of an aversive stimulus (a punisher). Standard punishment. Followed by something unpleasant. PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 12 Response Cost – a response is followed by the removal of an appetitive stimulus. Do something bad and something good is taken away. Ex. Doing something bad and no ice cream for desert. Extinction – a decrease in the likelihood that a response will be repeated. The response had to have been previously reinforced. The reinforcement is no longer paired with the response, hence the frequency of the response decreases. Generalization & Discrimination Similar concepts to Classical Conditioning Generalization – giving the response to stimuli that are similar to the Discriminative (or Antecedent) Stimulus. Discrimination – learning to distinguish between different types/forms of Discriminative Stimuli. What about creating complex, or novel behaviours? Shaping – reinforcing any response that successfully approximates the desired response. Want a rat to press a lever? Reinforce any movement toward the lever, Then, only reinforce touching the lever, Then, only reinforce pressing the lever Do we have to reinforce every behaviour? Intermittent Reinforcement – reinforcing some, but not all, of the responses. This leads the organism to expect the occasional unrewarded response – and hence the organism is more willing to keep repeating the response even when not reinforced The response is more resistant to extinction Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement –based on keeping consistent a ratio between number of responses and the number of reinforcements • Fixed-Ratio Schedule – reinforcement scheduled to occur after a certain number of responses (i.e. a food pellet delivered every 5 press of the lever) • Variable-Ratio Schedule – a reinforcement is scheduled to occur an average amount of times. The occurrence of the reinforcement is variable (but the reinforcement occurs after a certain average number of responses) Interval Schedule of Reinforcement– based on reinforcing the first response that occurs after a certain period of time has elapsed • Fixed-Interval Schedule – after a fixed amount of time has passed, the very next response is rewarded • Variable-Interval Schedule – after a variable amount of time (keeping constant a certain average amount of time), the very next response is rewarded • How do we condition complex behaviours? The Garcia & Koelling study. The Conditioning of Complex Behaviours – Are we preprogrammed to be sensitive to aversive stimuli? Taste Aversion – do we have a biological predisposition to avoid/dislike foods that have previously been associated with nausea? • Is it possible that we (and other animals – i.e. rats), have the “pre-wired” ability to more easily make associations between certain kinds of environmental stimuli? Conditioning of Flavour Aversions - Garcia & Koelling (1966) Tested the drinking behaviour of rats in cages DV – the amount of water they would drink (compared to normal) PSYC1001, Final Exam Study Guide, page 13 IV – four conditions Rats – taking a sip of water was paired with: either (1) a sugary taste, or (2) a buzzing noise with a flashing light These two “types of water” (i.e. “bright-noisy” water, and “tasty” water) were paired with two types of aversive stimuli (shock, or illness) Results: rats in group 1 and group 4 had reduced levels of drinking in a follow up test • Proving that not just any CS can be paired with any UCS. Learning is facilitated when the CS and the UCS make sense together Rats were able to learn about associations between internal sensations (illness) and novel tastes The interval between the CS and the UCS can be quite long • What is observational learning? How does this work? What was Albert Bandura’s original Bobo doll study? What did the study show? Observational Learning Observational Learning: learning that occurs without direct experience, solely through observing the actions of others. • Albert Bandura – the famous “Bobo doll experiment” Three factors that influence the effectiveness of a model 1. Characteristics of the model – more likely to be influenced by someone who we believe is similar to ourselves. 2. Attributes of the observer – people who are low in self-esteem, highly dependent, or highly motivated are more likely to follow a model 3. Reward consequences associated with a behaviour – people are more likely to emulate a model if they believe that such actions will lead to positive result
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