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Carleton University
PSYC 1001
Kavita Prakash

• CHAPTER 6: The Study of Learning • What is learning? – A permanent change in behaviour or knowledge as a result of experience – Film on Learning – Not when you realize that you shouldn’t do something, but you make actions to ensure that it doesn’t happen again. • Habituation • A decrease in behavioural response after repeated exposure to a stimulus that does not require any action on your part – E.g., nearby cell phone rings – Not yours – No longer check your phone – Learning has occurred • Classical Conditioning • Classical conditioning is defined as a basic form of learning in which one stimulus predicts the occurrence of another • Ivan Pavlov – Russian physiologist – Studied digestion in dogs – Nobel Prize in 1904 – Classical Conditioning • behaviour was elicited by a stimulus that has acquired its power through an association with a biologically significant stimulus – Repeated pairing of a stimulus with stimuli that naturally elicit a reflex response • E.g., salivation, pupil contraction, knee jerks – Also called Pavlovian conditioning • Conditioning Concepts • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that brings out a specific behaviour. stimulus that elicits a behaviour of interest. Brings out natural response (Unconditioned Response) Pavlov- bringing out of meat powder • Unconditioned Response (UCR) the response that is natural occurring, biological response. Unlearned reflex • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) CS-neutral stimulus, has no meaning until it is given meaning. Can be paired with biological events. Ex. Pavlov ringing the bell, then presented dog with food..bell becomes associated by unconditioned stimulus • Conditioned Response (CR) CR-learned response to the conditioned stimulus. UCR and CR is the same behaviour, however CR is based on learning • Figure 6.2 The sequence of events in classical conditioning • (a) Moving downward, this series of three panels outlines the sequence of events in classical conditioning, using Pavlov’s original demonstration as an example. (b) As we encounter other examples of classical conditioning throughout the book, we will see many diagrams like the one in this panel, which will provide snapshots of specific instances of classical conditioning. • How does this work in the real world? • Fear (learned based on classical and operant conditioning) and anxiety • Phobias- irrational fear • E.g., father making jokes on a bridge…jokes about bridge collapsing and dying – UCS=the scary jokes – UCR= fear – CS= a bridge is now feared – CR= fear(learned response) • Figure 6.3 Classical conditioning of a fear response • Cont. • Father at circus- always reaching for his bag – UCS=the look on your father’s face and his action to reach for his medical bag. – UCR=Daughter would tense up – CS=seeing a circus tent – CR= feeling the learned tension • Cont. • Child going for a needle – UCS=the needle that brought out the pain (the white coat syndrome) – UCR= pain from needle – CS= seeing a doctor – CR= fear from needle and doctor. Learned • Have a panic attack • Child stung by a bee -UCS= bee stings child -UCR= pain from bee sting -CS= bee or other flying insect -CR= fear (learned) • Evaluative Conditioning • = how we like or dislike something based on Classical Conditioning • Pair 2 UCS together • Elicit new reaction to UCS • UCS becomes a CS • Processes of Conditioning • Acquisition- initial stages of learning, the learning process. • Stimulus Contingency- when the conditioned and the unconditioned stimulus have to be presented together or within a certain time frame; The two have to be close together in time • Salient Stimulus- stimulus has to be noticeable • Extinction- can you make their CR weaker or disappear – CS with no UCS • Spontaneous recovery- when an extinguished response (CR) suddenly reappears. Ex. dogs bell tone (CS) was extinguished for a while and then dogs go home for a few weeks, come back and salivate at bell tone again • Processes of Conditioning • Are responses specific to the stimuli? No … • Stimulus generalization (opposite: stimulus discrimination) • The more similar the new stimuli is to original CS, the more likely generalization will occur • Showing a CR to a certain stimuli and then showing it to a similar stimuli • Fear or phobias – Not just a specific situation cause the CR, therefore vast treatments are necessary – Little Albert • Little Albert • Loud sound (UCS) = fear (UCR) • Loud Sound (UCS) + rat (CS) = fear (UCR) • Rat (CS) = Fear (CR) ; learned response • Generalized to other animals (stimulus generalization) • Process continued. • Stimulus discrimination- more narrow, cannot make associations. Showing a CR to a certain CS – Ex. an animal knows to run from a specific predator and not from all other animals • Higher Order Conditioning • CS functions as if it were an UCS • Operant Conditioning - B.F. Skinner - A basic form of learning in which behavioural responses are controlled by their consequences. Controlled by what comes after; Based on rewards and/or punishments • Instrumental Learning - Ex. Training dog with treats • Operant Conditioning • Law of Effect = the relationship between behaviour and its consequences • Edward L. Thorndike – Coined term – Provided a foundation to the study of operant conditioning • A behavioural response followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable • A behavioural response followed by dissatisfying consequences becomes less probable • Law of Effect • Skinner box • Process of Operant Conditioning • Acquisition-the learning that is taking place; initial stages of learning • Shaping- when you learn though small successful step by step processes • Ex. Amazing animal tricks • Process of Operant Conditioning • Extinction- stop giving a reward = behaviour stops • Resistance to Extinction- hard to extinguish something learned through operant conditioning. • Discriminative Stimuli- receiving a cue or reminder before your behaviour. Ex. A light goes on in a skinner box to press the lever for food. Cues indicating when you will be rewarded for your behaviour • Stimulus Discrimination- not receiving a cue; learned a behaviour exactly how you learned it. Don’t think apply it to another context. Ex. Clearing dishes at home but not at others peoples homes • Stimulus Generalization- learned behaviour applies everywhere. Ex. Always clearing dishes • Reinforcement • Reinforcement- receiving something that will increase a behavioural response • Primary Reinforcers- food, drink, shelter- fulfill a biological need • Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcers- any other reward; stickers or money • Superstitious Behaviours- not washing hockey equipment for good luck • Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous Reinforcement- there is always a reward • Intermittent/Partial Reinforcement- reward only some of the time - best way to reinforce behaviour - not dependant on reward, they never know when response will get them the reward • Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement • rewards are based on a certain # of behavioural responses made • Fixed Ratio (FR)= pre-set -ex. Every 3 times my dog sits = reward • Variable Ratio (VR)= based on an average number - ex. Every 6-8 times my dog sits = reward • Interval Schedules of Reinforcement - Rewards are based on how much time has passed • Fixed Interval (FI)- weekly pay check -ex. working and then after a week=money • Variable Interval (VI)- an average time scale -ex. fishing = hours or days of catching a fish • Positive vs. Negative Reinforcement • Positive reinforcement (+ pleasurable) - adding something pleasurable = increase behaviour • Negative reinforcement (- aversive) NOT PUNISHMENT - taking away something negative. -Ex. Child screams loud for candy -child is positively reinforced = got candy -parent is negatively reinforced = got rid of screaming – Escape conditioning- learn to get rid of smthg negative ex: Advil for headache – Avoidance conditioning-learn to do smthg before it gets negative ex: slow down as you approach a cop car • Punishment -aversive or +pleasurable – Increase wanted behavioural responses – Decrease unwanted behavioural responses – Real Life Examples of Conditioning • Ex. Taste Aversion- condition yourself to avoid that food because it makes you sick – Flu (UCS) = nausea (UCR) – Wings (CS) = nausea…blame wings for nausea (CR) – Next time you see wings (CS) = nausea (CR) • Observational Learning - influenced by observing models (others) - do not need to be directly reinforced in order to learn. - Albert Bandura (identified 4 key processes in observational learning) 1. Attention – notice what’s going on 2. Retention – retain it; remember for future reference 3. Reproduction – is something you can actually do 4. Motivation – want to do it when the time comes • Bandura & Social Learning • Classic Bobo doll studies – Several factors can make the model’s observed behaviour most influential: reinforcement & model’s similarity to observer – Reinforcement determines behaviour Introductory Psychology: Chapter 7: Memory • The Nature of Memories • Can you remember your childhood? • Can you remember all the content of the lectures you attended today? - Memory is a complex phenomenon - Essential for survival • Definition of Memory - mental process of storage and retrieval of info & experience • Basic Processes of Memory 1. Encoding – forming a memory code 2. Storage – maintaining encoded info in memory over time 3. Retrieval – recovering encoded info from memory stores • Encoding - Process: A) Perception B) Forming memory codes (3) 1. Visual Code – emphasizes physical structure 2. Acoustic Codes – emphasizes what a word sounds like 3. Semantic Codes – emphasizes the meaning of the word • Level of Processing • Enriching Encoding - Semantic encoding can be enhanced through: 1. Elaboration – linking a stimulus to other info (ex: read about phobias, apply to your own s
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