PSYC 1001 Study Guide - Final Guide: Bee Sting, Albert Bandura, Classical Conditioning

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Published on 13 Apr 2013
School
Carleton University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1001
CHAPTER 6: The Study of Learning
What is learning?
A permanent change in behaviour or knowledge as a result of experience
Film on Learning
Not when you realize that you shouldn’t do something, but you make actions to ensure
that it doesn’t happen again.
Habituation
A decrease in behavioural response after repeated exposure to a stimulus that does not require any
action on your part
E.g., nearby cell phone rings
Not yours
No longer check your phone
Learning has occurred
Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning is defined as a basic form of learning in which one stimulus predicts the
occurrence of another
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist
Studied digestion in dogs
Nobel Prize in 1904
Classical Conditioning
behaviour was elicited by a stimulus that has acquired its power through an association with a
biologically significant stimulus
Repeated pairing of a stimulus with stimuli that naturally elicit a reflex response
E.g., salivation, pupil contraction, knee jerks
Also called Pavlovian conditioning
Conditioning Concepts
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Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that brings out a specific behaviour. stimulus that elicits
a behaviour of interest. Brings out natural response (Unconditioned Response) Pavlov- bringing
out of meat powder
Unconditioned Response (UCR) the response that is natural occurring, biological response.
Unlearned reflex
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) CS-neutral stimulus, has no meaning until it is given meaning. Can
be paired with biological events. Ex. Pavlov ringing the bell, then presented dog with food..bell
becomes associated by unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Response (CR) CR-learned response to the conditioned stimulus. UCR and CR is
the same behaviour, however CR is based on learning
Figure 6.2 The sequence of events in classical conditioning
(a) Moving downward, this series of three panels outlines the sequence of events in classical
conditioning, using Pavlov’s original demonstration as an example. (b) As we encounter other
examples of classical conditioning throughout the book, we will see many diagrams like the one
in this panel, which will provide snapshots of specific instances of classical conditioning.
How does this work in the real world?
Fear (learned based on classical and operant conditioning) and anxiety
Phobias- irrational fear
E.g., father making jokes on a bridgejokes about bridge collapsing and dying
UCS=the scary jokes
UCR= fear
CS= a bridge is now feared
CR= fear(learned response)
Figure 6.3 Classical conditioning of a fear response
Cont.
Father at circus- always reaching for his bag
UCS=the look on your father’s face and his action to reach for his medical bag.
UCR=Daughter would tense up
CS=seeing a circus tent
CR= feeling the learned tension
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Cont.
Child going for a needle
UCS=the needle that brought out the pain (the white coat syndrome)
UCR= pain from needle
CS= seeing a doctor
CR= fear from needle and doctor. Learned
Have a panic attack
Child stung by a bee
-UCS= bee stings child
-UCR= pain from bee sting
-CS= bee or other flying insect
-CR= fear (learned)
Evaluative Conditioning
= how we like or dislike something based on Classical Conditioning
Pair 2 UCS together
Elicit new reaction to UCS
UCS becomes a CS
Processes of Conditioning
Acquisition- initial stages of learning, the learning process.
Stimulus Contingency- when the conditioned and the unconditioned stimulus have to be
presented together or within a certain time frame; The two have to be close together in time
Salient Stimulus- stimulus has to be noticeable
Extinction- can you make their CR weaker or disappear
CS with no UCS
Spontaneous recovery- when an extinguished response (CR) suddenly reappears. Ex. dogs bell
tone (CS) was extinguished for a while and then dogs go home for a few weeks, come back and
salivate at bell tone again
Processes of Conditioning
Are responses specific to the stimuli? No …
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Document Summary

A permanent change in behaviour or knowledge as a result of experience. Learning has occurred: classical conditioning, classical conditioning is defined as a basic form of learning in which one stimulus predicts the occurrence of another. Classical conditioning behaviour was elicited by a stimulus that has acquired its power through an association with a biologically significant stimulus. Repeated pairing of a stimulus with stimuli that naturally elicit a reflex response: e. g. , salivation, pupil contraction, knee jerks. Also called pavlovian conditioning: conditioning concepts, unconditioned stimulus (ucs) stimulus that brings out a specific behaviour. stimulus that elicits a behaviour of interest. Brings out natural response (unconditioned response) pavlov- bringing out of meat powder: unconditioned response (ucr) the response that is natural occurring, biological response. Unlearned reflex: conditioned stimulus (cs) cs-neutral stimulus, has no meaning until it is given meaning. Pavlov ringing the bell, then presented dog with foodbell becomes associated by unconditioned stimulus: conditioned response (cr) cr-learned response to the conditioned stimulus.

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