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PSYC 1001
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Psyc1001 Final ReviewChapters 58Chapter 5Variations in Consciousness reticular activating system EEG Patterns TMS rapid eye movements amygdala chronic partial sleep deprivation Freud was the first person to comment on dreamsNature of Consciousnessour awareness of internal and external stimuliour consciousness is continuously changingcomplex nature of consciousness presents a challenge for scientists to define it exactly to find its track in our brainWe still can measure the electrical activity of the brain and use the patterns of brain waves as indicators of consciousness Different patterns of electrical activity are associated with different states consciousness We use electroencephalograph EEG to measure brain activity Altered States of ConsciousnessSleepFrequent fluctuations in our consciousness result from sleeping Like many other animals humans have an internal biological clock that regulates physiological functions including sleeping Our internal clock follows 24hour biological cycles known as Circadian Rhythm When we are cut from all external time cues our internal clock keeps working However our cycles run a little longer than 24 hours We readjust our cycle everyday by being exposed to day light and darkness which changes the release of the melatonin hormone Being out of sync with your internal clock causes many mental and physical problems including the sleep problemsStages of SleepAwakeyou are still relatively awake and alert The brain produces beta waves which are small and fastDrowsyas the brain begins to relax and slow down slower waves known as alpha waves are produced While you are not quite asleep you may experience strange and extremely vivid sensations Typically around 20 minutesStage IIt lasts a few minutes It is a very light sleep Theta waves are prominentStage IIBody temperature and heart rate decrease It lasts for approximately 20 minutes The brain begins to produce bursts of rapid rhythmic brain wave activity known as sleep spindles You are now really asleepStage III You are in deep sleep and delta waves are prominent This deep sleep lasts forand Vapproximately 30 minutesStage IVAfter 30 minutes of deep sleep sleep cycle reverses and we start to return to lighter stages At that point we enter the fifth stage of sleep REM During REM our brain produces the beta waves as it does when we are alert and awake even though we are asleep While the brain is active most muscles in our body are paralyzed during REM episodes It represents the paradox of sleeping body with an activated brain This paradox is related to the association between REM sleep and dreaming Even though we dream in other stages NonREM sleep dreams in REM sleep are vivid frequent and memorableOver the course of a night people repeat the sleep cycle about four times In first cycles the REM period is relatively short During the night REM sleeps increase in length while NonREM intervals get shorterSleep cycles change in nature as people ageIn the first few months REM episodes account for 50 of babies sleep as compared to 20 of adults sleepDuring adulthood REM sleep remains fairly stable but slowwave sleep or deep sleeps decline as we get olderIn general the average amount of total sleep time also decreases with advancing ageSleep Deprivation and Disorders
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