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PSYCHOLOGY NOTES ONE TO FOUR.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1001
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all

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Chapter 1 Nature vs Nurture Nature the impact of biologyNurture the impact of environmentMind vs BodyThe mind and body are separate and distinct Wilhem wundtFounder of psychologyEstablished first formal laboratoryEdward titchener Structuralism was the idea that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related Structuralists wanted to identify and examine the fundamental components of conscious experiences such as sensations feelings and images They explored many things such as perception in hearing vision and touch Introspection was the careful systematic observations of ones own conscious experience William JamesFunctionalism was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the purpose or function of ones conscious rather than its structureJohn B WatsonBF SkinnerBehaviourism is the scientific premise of psychology that believed you should only study observable behaviour Behaviour refers to any overt observable response or activity by any organismWatson asserted that psychologists should study anything that people do or sayIssue of nature vs nurture whether behaviour is determined mainly by genetic inheritance nature or by environment experience nurtureQuestion is a great concert pianist born or made Watson argued that each are made not born Stimulus any detectible input from the environment Stimuli can range from light and sound waves to such complex inputs as the words on this page ads on tv or a sarcastic remark from a friend BF Skinner eventually developed a system based on his own philosophy of radical behaviourism he showed that he could exert remarkable control over the behaviour of animals By manipulating the outcome of their responses according to Skinner people are controlled by their environment not themselves free will is an illusionIvan Pavlov Sigmund FreudPsychoanalysis is the theory of unconsciousness which was able to explain many aspects of human mind and behaviour He proposed that behaviour is greatly influenced by how people cope with their sexual urges very controversial Freuds two ideas existence of unconsciousness and unconscious motivation unconscious conflicts exist and lead to mental illnessesdreams and slips of tongueID it is the animal part of the self works with pleasure principle wants pleasure and wants it nowEGO it handles the desires of the ID by planning how to satisfy it or planning to suppress themSUPEREGO it is the internalized rules of society interaction of the three processes leads to unconscious conflicts and affects your thoughts feelings and behaviour Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Humanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential personal growthHumanists have an optimistic view on human natureCarl rogers argued that human behaviour is governed primarily by each individuals sense of self Rise of Social psychology
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