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Psych Text Notes Chapter 6.docx

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PSYC 1001
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Chapter 6Superstitions are often a result of attaining a reward after engaging in some behaviourPhobias Are irrational fears of specific objects or situations they are often a result of a learning process termed classical conditioningLearningrefers to a relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge that is due to experience because of this broad definition it means that learning is one of the most fundamental terms in all of psychologyLearning includes the acquisition of knowledge and skills as well as shaping personal habitsnail bitingpersonality traitsshynessemotional responsesfear of stormspersonal preferencestaste in clothesMuch of your behaviour is a result of learningWithout learned responses little behaviour would be left and we would not be very complexMost organisms are capable of learningConditioninginvolves learning associations between events that occur in an organisms environmentClassical ConditioningClassical ConditioningA type of learning which stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus it is sometimes known as pavlovian conditioningIvan Pavlov first discovered what he referred to as psychic reflexesHe noticed that the dogs would salivate before they were presented with food in response to a clicking made by the device which delivered the foodHe conducted his experiment by pairing a tone with the presentation of food after this was done many times he could use the tone alone to make the dogs salivate in expectationThis was significant because the tone started out as a neutral stimulus as it did not originally produce salivation but through the process acquired the ability to trigger the salivationPavlov had demonstrated the theory of learned associations these were viewed as the building blocks of the entire learning processLearned associations are formed by events in an organisms environmentHe built a theory around this which was meant to explain aspects of emotion temperament neuroses and languageScientists now believe that pavlovian conditioning may have evolved to increase our chances of reproductive successTerminology and ProceduresUnconditioned StimulusUCSis a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioningUnconditioned ResponseUCRIs an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioningConditioned StimulusCSIs a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired the capacity to evoke conditioned responsesConditioned ResponseCRis a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of previous conditioningUnconditioned response and conditioned response often consist of the same behaviour with slight differencesIn pavlovs demonstration the unconditioned response and the conditioned response were both salivationWhen evoked by the unconditioned stimulus meat powdersalivation was an unconditioned responseWhen evoked by the conditioned stimulus tone salivation was a conditioned responseThis is classical conditioningA TrialIn classical conditioning consists of any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuliPsychologists are interested in how many trials are required to establish a conditioned bondClassical conditioning usually is a gradual process but can occur sometimes as immediately as one pairing of the CS and UCSClassical Conditioning in Everyday Life
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