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PSYC 1001
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PSYCH FINAL EXAM NOTESCHAPTER 4 NATURE NURTURE AND HUMAN DIVERSITYBehavior genetics the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behaviorEnvironment every nongenetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around usChromosomes threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genesDNA a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomesGenes the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a proteinGenome the complete instructions for making an organism consisting of all the genetic material in that organisms chromosomesIdentical twins twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two creating two genetically identical organismsFraternal twins twins who develop from separate fertilized eggsThey are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters but they share a fetal environmentGenetic relatives vs environmental relatives related family vs adopted family and friendsAdopted children do not acquire similar personalities to their adoptive parents always develop similar characteristics to their biological parentsTemperament a persons characteristic emotional reactivity and intensityDifficult babies irritable intense unpredictableEasy babies cheerful relaxed predictableSlowtowarmup babies resistwithdraw from new people and situationsTemperament in infanthood is a good predictor of temperament in adulthoodHeritability the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genesThe heritability of a trait may vary depending on the range of populations and environments sharedDifferences among people in a population NOT differences between genes and environment in an individualAs environments become more similar heredity as a source of differences necessarily becomes more importantInteraction the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor environment depends on another factor heredityMolecular genetics the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genesEvolutionary psychology the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using principles of natural selectionNatural selection the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations most commonly used Darwinian theory used by evolutionary psychologistsMen are more likely than women to initiate sexual activitymajor gender differenceGender in psychology the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and femaleCulture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes values and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the nextChildren will be more influenced by their peers than their parentsNorm an understood rule for accepted and expected behaviorNorms prescribe proper behaviorPersonal space the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodiesIndividualism giving priority to ones own goals over group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identificationsCollectivism giving priority to goals of ones group extended family most often or work group and defining ones identity accordinglyAmong your 46 chromosomes 45 are unisexMen are more aggressive females are more interdependent tendbefriendrdUp til 7 weeks in utero you are anatomically gender neutralThen genes on 23 chromosome determines your sexX chromosome the sex chromosome found in both men and women Females have two x chromosomes males have oneAn x from each parent produces a femaleY chromosome the sex chromosome found only in malesWhen paired with an x from the mother it produces a maleTestosterone the most important of the male sex hormonesBoth males and females have it but the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of the male sex organs in the fetus and the development of the male sex characteristics during pubertyththDuring 4 and 5 months sex hormones bathe fetal brain and develop appropriate wiring
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