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Midterm 2 Review.docx

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PSYC 1001
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Midterm 2 ReviewChapter 3The nervous system both the CNSPNSthe parts functions characteristics pathwaysCNS Central Nervous Systemlies within the skull spinal column INCLUDES brain and spinal cord2 forms of protection to the CNS Meningesthe cerebrospinal fluid that nourishes it and protects it Spinal Cord Extension of the brain runs from below the brain to just below the level of the waist It carries bundles of axons that carry brain commands to the peripheral nerves and bring info from peripheral to the brain both ways Paralysis can result from spinal cord damageBrain which includes the hindbrain Midbrain and Forebrain PNS Peripheral Nervous SystemAll nerves outside the brain and spinal cordSomatic AutonomicNervous system is made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors These nerves carry info from receptors in skin muscles and joints to CNS and carry command from CNS to the musclesTo do this you need 2 types of nerve fibres1Afferent Nerve Fibres Carry info to the CNS from the body BodyCNS2Efferent Nerve Fibres Carry info from the CNS to the body CNSBodySomatic nerves are two way streets incoming and outgoing lanes Autonomic Nervous SystemMade up of nerves that connect to the heart blood vessels smooth muscles and glands Controls autonomic involuntary functions EX Heart rate digestion sweatingIt is made up of physiological arousal when a person experiences emotion EX being nervous and your palms sweat You cant help itThere are 2 branches of the ANSSympathetic and ParasympatheticSympathetic mobilizes the bodys resources for emergency Sends signals to adrenal glandsParasympathetic Conserves bodily resources Ex slows down heart rate reduced blood pressure and promotes digestionHow we study the nervous system Looking inside the Brain Research MethodsElectrical Recordings The Electroencephalograph EEG is a device that monitors electrical activity of the brain over time by recording electrodes attached to the scalp It amplifies electric potential occurring in many brain cells EX Brain Waves different waves for different activities like sleeping or meditating Lesioning destroying a piece of the brain They do this in order to observe what happens when specific brain structures in animals are purposely disabled Electrical Stimulation of the Brain sending a weak electric current into the brain to stimulate itTrans cranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS is a new technique that permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain Increase or decrease excitability in neurons Brain Imaging Procedures CT computerized tomography is a computer enhanced Xray of brain structure PET Position Emission tomography looks not just at structure but at function activity over time Radio actively tagged chemicals in brain used as markers to see in Xray Color coded They can also study the activity of neurotransmittersMRI magnetic fields radio waves computer enhancement 3D high res Monitors blood flow and oxygen consumption to identify areas of activityfMRI functional is what the f stands for it doesnt just take a picture it takes a movie and we can see the actual change over time The brainparts of the brain and their functions the hindbrain the midbrain the forebrain etc areas of the cortex control of functions the organization of the brain the plasticity of the brain lateralization right brain vs left brain split brain research and the intact brainThe ForebrainLargest most complex part of the brain It includes1Thalamus the relay station for info coming into the brain from the sense organs initial processing
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