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PSYC1001Q_Introduction to Psychology I_John Weekes_Fall 2011( Entire Class Notes, Very Useful)

24 pages83 viewsFall 2011

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1001
Professor
John Weekes

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Psychology!
Week Five: Stress, Health and Coping (Chapter 13)
Biopsychosocial Model: Physical sickness is caused by the interaction between biological,
psychological, and sociocultural factors
Health Psychology: Concerned with how psychosocial factors impact health, and with how illness
is caused, treated, and prevented
Stress: Things that threaten, or look like they could threaten, your well-being, and
because of that, hurt your ability to cope (ex. Threat could be physical safety,
or reputation, etc.)
Types of Stress: - Acute Stressors: short duration and clear endpoint (ex. Exam)
- Chronic Stressors: long duration and no clear time limit (ex. Debt)
- Frustration: pursuit of a goal is thwarted (ex. Failures and losses... not getting
to an interview on time or losing your phone)
- Conflict: two or more incompatible motivations both trying to be expressed
at the same time... three types:
- Approach-Approach Conflict: choice between two attractive goals (ex.
Pizza or spaghetti)
- Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict: choice between two unattractive goals
(ex. Back pain or surgery)
- Approach-Avoidance Conflict: choice between whether or not you
should try to achieve a goal that has both attractive and unattractive
elements (ex. Ask your crush out on a date, fear of rejection)
- Life Change: big changes in your life that require you to readjust... don’t have
to be negative (ex. Death of family member, moving to a new home)
- Pressure: expectations that you behave in a certain way (ex. Comedians
under pressure to make people laugh)
Responses to Stress: - Emotional
- Common responses: annoyance, anger, anxiety, fear, sadness, grief
- Broaden-and-Build Theory of Positive Emotions
- Positive emotions change people’s mindsets, making their
creativity and flexibility better in problem solving...
- Positive emotions can undo changes of negative emotions...
- Positive emotions can lead to good social interactions that help
build social support
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- Physiological
- Fight-or-Flight Response: autonomic nervous system readies you for
attacking or fleeing from an enemy
- General Adaptation Syndrome: model of the body’s stress response...
three stages:
- Alarm - when sensing threat
- Resistance - where coping efforts start
- Exhaustion - when stress-fighting resources run out
- Behavioural
- Coping: active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate stress... can be
adaptive or maladaptive (ex. If you’re flunking you might increase your
study efforts, or give up)
- Learned Helplessness: passive behaviour from having to deal with
unavoidable negative things
- Aggression: anything that’s meant to hurt someone (physically or
verbally)
- Catharsis: release of emotional tension
- Indulging...
- Internet Addiction: lots of time online, can’t control it
- Defence Mechanisms: unconscious reactions that protect someone
from poor emotions like anxiety and guilt
- Defend against emotional discomfort
- Use self-deception
- Conscious and unconscious
- They’re normal
- Not always healthy (ex. Avoidance)
- Constructive Coping: healthy efforts that make people deal with stress
- Confront problems
- Be realistic
- Recognize disruptive emotional responses
- Make sure you’re not vulnerable to the effects of stress
Effects of Stress: - Impaired Task Performance
Psychologically - Burnout: physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, less interest in your
own well-being
- Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): long-lasting psychological issues that
happen because of a major traumatic event (ex. War, car crash)
- Psychological Problems (ex. Insomnia, problems having sex)
- Positive Effects (ex. Learning new skills, re-evaluate priorities)
Effects of Stress: - Psychosomatic Diseases: physical illness as a result of stress or other
Physically psychological issues (ex. High blood pressure, ulcers)
- Coronary Heart Disease: less blood flow to coronary arteries
- Atherosclerosis: gradual narrowing or coronary arteries
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- Type A Personality: three elements: competitiveness, impatience, and
anger... ambitious perfectionists who are easily irritated and often multitask
- Type B Personality: relaxed, patient, easygoing, friendly behaviour
- Type As tend to die at an earlier age
- Immune Response: defence toward bacteria, viruses, and other foreign
things
Health-Helping: - Social Support: different types of aid and emotional help that’s given to them
Behaviour by people in their social network (i.e. Family, friends, colleagues)
- Optimism: expect good outcomes
Health-Impairing: - Smoking
Behaviour - Bad Nutrition
- Lot’s of cholesterol
- Cardiovascular disease (ex. High intake of red meat)
- High salt intake
- High caffeine intake (leads to hypertension)
- High-fat diet (lead to cancer)
- Osteoporosis vulnerability (lack of calcium intake)
- Lack of exercise
- Alcohol and Drugs
- Behaviour and AIDS
- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: immune system’s weakened
and disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Reactions to Illness: - Seeking Treatment
- Talk with Health Providers
- Stick with Medical Advice
Catastrophic Thinking: Unrealistically negative assessments of stress that exaggerate how bad your
problems are
Week Six: Psychological Disorders (Chapter 14)
The Medical Model: Thinks of abnormal behaviour as a disease
- i.e. Mental illness, psychological disorder
Diagnosis: telling illnesses apart
Etiology: cause and history of an illness
Prognosis: guess at an illness’ cause
Criteria of Abnormal: Deviance
Behaviour - From what’s considered normal
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