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Community Psych Exam Notes.doc

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PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila

Community Psychology Exam Class Notes − Prevention is helpful in addressing problems in living, prevention has historically been used for abortions, drugs, immigration, economic justice, poverty − Prevention is important because: 1) Numbers problem because there isn't enough people to treat everyone 2) Some problems are difficult to treat like antisocial personality disorder 3) More cost-effective than treatment − Preventions is underfunded because 1) Benefits are less immediate 2) It challenges the status quo by taking political action to address social problems Prevention − Prevention: taking action beforehand to avoid future undesirable consequences and it was rooted in the 19 century public health movement − Incidence: means the number of new cases coming in the population over an amount of time − Prevalence: the number of all cases that exist in a particular time that reflect both incidence rate and duration of disease. It's the percentage of people with a disease at a given time − P (Prevalence)= I (Incidence) x D (Duration) − P goes down if I goes down and P goes down if treatment reduces duration of disease Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Prevention − 1960 the distinctions in prevention were introduced by Gerald Caplan − Tertiary Prevention: intervention given to a specific population who have a disorder and you try to limit any other disability caused by the disorder by reducing it's intensity by preventing other complications. Doesn't reduce prevalence. Ex. Supported living − Secondary Prevention: intervention given to a specific population with early signs of a disorder or difficulty. They don't have the disorder just the signs. Prevention reduces the duration of the problem which reduces prevalence. Incidence isn’t affected because preventive factors are issued to a specific population and leaves out people. The risk is stigmatization of the disorder. Ex. Crisis Intervention − Primary Prevention: actually reduces the incidence of a disorder. It's given to entire populations that aren't known to be in distress. Lower incidence by reducing bad circumstances before problems happen. After the intervention they have to show no signs of problem. Ex. Vaccination Indicated, Selective and Universal Prevention − Indicated Prevention: intervention with specific individuals who already have signs of the disorder but aren't diagnosable disorder, been the focus of past mental health professionals and done early in stage of problem − Selective Prevention: intervention targeted at individuals that are facing an above average risk for developing mental disorders but show no detectable signs of it. Environmental risk factors and personal risk factors contribute to it, happen beofre a problem happens − Universal Prevention: interventions provided to populations not in distress, may be low in cost-effectiveness. Happen before a problem happens Ex. Anti-Smoking campaigns Prevention of Disorder and Promotion of Wellness − Prevention's double meaning in that it should prevent problem behaviours and promote overall health and quality of life − The methods for promoting healthy health aim at producing higher prevalence of healthy individuals and increasing well-being Ex. Effective child parenting − Schools are a way for problems to be tackled in public education Ex. Obesity − Advocates of prevention say focus should be on isolating and reducing the workings of risk factors − Advocates of promotion say people aren't in a state of psychological well-being so efforts need to be directed at identifying factors that promote health and wellness in daily living − Historically have been invested in promoting positive mental health expect recently in positive psychology Research on Preventive Interventions − Preventive research test the effectiveness of preventive programs − Define disorder or problem to be prevented and gather information regarding risk and protective factors associated with disorder − Do a lit review showing effective interventions for specific problem − See the risk factors that predisposing and precipitating factors − Predisposing factors: may be genetic or linked to individual's history − Precipitating factors: happen close to the point when the episode of the disorder starts Ex. Exposure to combat − Protective factors: those that tend to offset the risk of some problem ex. Social support system − Refine prevention program and determine the size of its effects while testing research procedure. Good results and you'd do large scale field trials − Must work collaboratively with stakeholders − Need to be theoretically based allowing for easy implementation of intervention in new situation Conclusion on Prevention and Promotion − Forces us to responsibility for the occurrence of conditions not fully understood and to take a long view of success − Indicated prevention involves early id and treatment of early stages in individuals. − Universal prevention aimed at reducing incidence of long term problem but some have been launched on inadequate evidence of effectiveness − Most successful prevention programs bring changes in life trajectories and contextual changes and not just new individual behaviours − Prevention is value driven and time and resource consuming so that's why we need the influence of all stakeholders in the planning, implementation and evaluation of programs − Prevention programs need to document cost-benefit advantages claimed for prevention − Prevention isn't cure all problem Citizen Participation and Empowerment Citizen Participation − Citizen Participation: process where people are included in decision making related to the environments that concern them − About making one's voice heard and influencing decisions, it's not community service − Citizen participation has more force if done collectively but not a guarantee of better decisions if conflicts unresolved and isn't always effective − My be a means to an or an end in itself Empowerment − Rappaport Empowerment: process where people, organization and communities gain mastery over their affairs. It's an intentional ongoing process centered in the local community involving mutual respect and caring where people lacing resources gain greater access to and control over resources − Happens through interaction with others and social change happens through collective acts of citizen participation − Empowerment and citizen participation involves power in collective decision making. Difference is that citizen participation is behavioural whereas empowerment includes cognitive and emotional processes including behavioural ones Qualities of Empowerment − Empowerment is multilevel concept but empowerment in one level doesn't mean empowerment at other levels − Empowerment is a bottom up approach: started by ordinary people asserting control over their lives. Top down approach: perspective of the powerful wishing to maintain the existing power structure − Empowerment is contextual, what works in one setting may not wrok in another and dynamic process where it unfolds over time − Happens through participation in groups with strong sense of community, that are open to decision making by everyone and encourage shared leadership − Must be balanced with other values like social justice, equality, respect for diversity and sense of community Forms of Power − Power Over: capacity to dominate others, usually in social structures. Could lead to injustice but can promote justice ex. Laws to end discrimination − Power to: ability of people to carry out personal goals and develop capacitites to share power, influence by persuasion instead of coercion − Power From: ability to resist unwanted demands by others, can be used to resist oppression − Integrative Power: capacity to build groups, bind people together and inspire loyalty. Some forms based on moral principles. − Satyagrha: the power of truth to fight oppression by appealing to sense of justice − Reward Power: control of valued rewards whereby others will shapre their actions to get these − Coercive Power: capacity to punish, − Both reward and coercive power force a person's behavioral compliance, similar to power over − Legitimate Power: position power based on superior position. Can be used in hierarchies of oppression ex. Men deemed superior to women. If position power unjust it's legitimacy is undermined. − Expert Power: used to offset position power ex. Mutual health groups − Referent Power: based on social identity shared by people in any human relationship. Resource for recovery is in mutual help groups. Usually exercised in interpersonal and microsystem − Three forms of influence in referent power: 1) Based on liking, respect or personal relationship 2)Appeals to group solidarity 3) Networking by seeking help from someone in your social network. − Exercising power means having control over resources and capacity to to change those who resist to compromise. Power involves the capacity to have influence in decision making
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