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PSYC 1002 Study Guide - Final Guide: 1999 In Pride Fc, Empowered, Gerald Caplan

Course Code
PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila
Study Guide

of 4
Community Psychology Exam Class Notes
Prevention is helpful in addressing problems in living, prevention has historically been used for abortions, drugs, immigration, economic justice, poverty
Prevention is important because: 1) Numbers problem because there isn't enough people to treat everyone 2) Some problems are difficult to treat like antisocial
personality disorder 3) More cost-effective than treatment
Preventions is underfunded because 1) Benefits are less immediate 2) It challenges the status quo by taking political action to address social problems
Prevention: taking action beforehand to avoid future undesirable consequences and it was rooted in the 19th century public health movement
Incidence: means the number of new cases coming in the population over an amount of time
Prevalence: the number of all cases that exist in a particular time that reflect both incidence rate and duration of disease. It's the percentage of people with a disease
at a given time
P (Prevalence)= I (Incidence) x D (Duration)
P goes down if I goes down and P goes down if treatment reduces duration of disease
Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Prevention
1960 the distinctions in prevention were introduced by Gerald Caplan
Tertiary Prevention: intervention given to a specific population who have a disorder and you try to limit any other disability caused by the disorder by reducing it's
intensity by preventing other complications. Doesn't reduce prevalence. Ex. Supported living
Secondary Prevention: intervention given to a specific population with early signs of a disorder or difficulty. They don't have the disorder just the signs. Prevention
reduces the duration of the problem which reduces prevalence. Incidence isn’t affected because preventive factors are issued to a specific population and leaves out
people. The risk is stigmatization of the disorder. Ex. Crisis Intervention
Primary Prevention: actually reduces the incidence of a disorder. It's given to entire populations that aren't known to be in distress. Lower incidence by reducing
bad circumstances before problems happen. After the intervention they have to show no signs of problem. Ex. Vaccination
Indicated, Selective and Universal Prevention
Indicated Prevention: intervention with specific individuals who already have signs of the disorder but aren't diagnosable disorder, been the focus of past mental
health professionals and done early in stage of problem
Selective Prevention: intervention targeted at individuals that are facing an above average risk for developing mental disorders but show no detectable signs of it.
Environmental risk factors and personal risk factors contribute to it, happen beofre a problem happens
Universal Prevention: interventions provided to populations not in distress, may be low in cost-effectiveness. Happen before a problem happens Ex. Anti-Smoking
Prevention of Disorder and Promotion of Wellness
Prevention's double meaning in that it should prevent problem behaviours and promote overall health and quality of life
The methods for promoting healthy health aim at producing higher prevalence of healthy individuals and increasing well-being Ex. Effective child parenting
Schools are a way for problems to be tackled in public education Ex. Obesity
Advocates of prevention say focus should be on isolating and reducing the workings of risk factors
Advocates of promotion say people aren't in a state of psychological well-being so efforts need to be directed at identifying factors that promote health and wellness
in daily living
Historically have been invested in promoting positive mental health expect recently in positive psychology
Research on Preventive Interventions
Preventive research test the effectiveness of preventive programs
Define disorder or problem to be prevented and gather information regarding risk and protective factors associated with disorder
Do a lit review showing effective interventions for specific problem
See the risk factors that predisposing and precipitating factors
Predisposing factors: may be genetic or linked to individual's history
Precipitating factors: happen close to the point when the episode of the disorder starts Ex. Exposure to combat
Protective factors: those that tend to offset the risk of some problem ex. Social support system
Refine prevention program and determine the size of its effects while testing research procedure. Good results and you'd do large scale field trials
Must work collaboratively with stakeholders
Need to be theoretically based allowing for easy implementation of intervention in new situation
Conclusion on Prevention and Promotion
Forces us to responsibility for the occurrence of conditions not fully understood and to take a long view of success
Indicated prevention involves early id and treatment of early stages in individuals.
Universal prevention aimed at reducing incidence of long term problem but some have been launched on inadequate evidence of effectiveness
Most successful prevention programs bring changes in life trajectories and contextual changes and not just new individual behaviours
Prevention is value driven and time and resource consuming so that's why we need the influence of all stakeholders in the planning, implementation and evaluation
of programs
Prevention programs need to document cost-benefit advantages claimed for prevention
Prevention isn't cure all problem
Citizen Participation and Empowerment
Citizen Participation
Citizen Participation: process where people are included in decision making related to the environments that concern them
About making one's voice heard and influencing decisions, it's not community service
Citizen participation has more force if done collectively but not a guarantee of better decisions if conflicts unresolved and isn't always effective
My be a means to an or an end in itself
Rappaport Empowerment: process where people, organization and communities gain mastery over their affairs. It's an intentional ongoing process centered in the
local community involving mutual respect and caring where people lacing resources gain greater access to and control over resources
Happens through interaction with others and social change happens through collective acts of citizen participation
Empowerment and citizen participation involves power in collective decision making. Difference is that citizen participation is behavioural whereas empowerment
includes cognitive and emotional processes including behavioural ones
Qualities of Empowerment
Empowerment is multilevel concept but empowerment in one level doesn't mean empowerment at other levels
Empowerment is a bottom up approach: started by ordinary people asserting control over their lives. Top down approach: perspective of the powerful wishing to
maintain the existing power structure
Empowerment is contextual, what works in one setting may not wrok in another and dynamic process where it unfolds over time
Happens through participation in groups with strong sense of community, that are open to decision making by everyone and encourage shared leadership
Must be balanced with other values like social justice, equality, respect for diversity and sense of community
Forms of Power
Power Over: capacity to dominate others, usually in social structures. Could lead to injustice but can promote justice ex. Laws to end discrimination
Power to: ability of people to carry out personal goals and develop capacitites to share power, influence by persuasion instead of coercion
Power From: ability to resist unwanted demands by others, can be used to resist oppression
Integrative Power: capacity to build groups, bind people together and inspire loyalty. Some forms based on moral principles.
Satyagrha: the power of truth to fight oppression by appealing to sense of justice
Reward Power: control of valued rewards whereby others will shapre their actions to get these
Coercive Power: capacity to punish,
Both reward and coercive power force a person's behavioral compliance, similar to power over
Legitimate Power: position power based on superior position. Can be used in hierarchies of oppression ex. Men deemed superior to women. If position power
unjust it's legitimacy is undermined.
Expert Power: used to offset position power ex. Mutual health groups
Referent Power: based on social identity shared by people in any human relationship. Resource for recovery is in mutual help groups. Usually exercised in
interpersonal and microsystem
Three forms of influence in referent power: 1) Based on liking, respect or personal relationship 2) Appeals to group solidarity 3) Networking by seeking help from
someone in your social network.
Exercising power means having control over resources and capacity to to change those who resist to compromise. Power involves the capacity to have influence in
decision making
Citizen Participation, Empowerment and Sense of Community
Research shows that people initially accept the status quo but recognize social injustice by seeing how events involving power benefit the dominant. They speak out
and form a new sense of self and empowered participation in social action
Can also study 6 qualities of empowered people:
1) Critical Awareness: understand how power and sociopolitical forces affected personal and community life. Critical awareness comes from 3 sources which are
life experiences with injustice, reflection on experiences and dialogue with others.
2) Sense of Collective Efficacy: belief in effectiveness of citizen collective actions for improved community life. It's both cognitive and contextual
3) Sense of Personal Participatory Efficacy: individual belief that one has the capacity to engage effectively in citizen participation and influence community
decisions. It's about behavioural participation and it's also contextual.
4) Participatory Values and Commitment: citizen action is motivated by more than beliefs about efficacy and requires moral commitment to deeply held values
5) Relational Connections: requires relationships to others. Connections include social support and mentoring for participation and participating in community
6) Participatory Skills: participatory competence is contextual. It articulates community problems using critical awareness and has visions of a better community.
Listens to everyone, identifies community resoures, can relate to people, encourage teamwork, resolve conflicts, plan strategies, provide social support, share power
and you avoid burnouts by finding ways to sustain commitment.
Empowering and Empowered Community Organizations
communities can be empowering or empowered
Empowering communities foster member participation and share power in decisions
Empowered communities exercise power in society by influencing decisions to create macrosystem changes
Becoming an empowered community requires creating empowering opportunities for citizens
Qualities of Empowering Community Organizations
How can community members empower their members?
1. Group Based and Strength Based Belief System: promote principles that define member goals, provide meaning for action, promote optimism. Shared community
events and narratives help.
2. Social Support: promote exchange of social support among members which builds organizational solidarity and power
3. Shared Inspiring Leadership: committed leaders who articulate vision for organization, demonstrate organizational skills and share power
4. Participatory Niches: create roles and task offering members to become involved. Niches promote recruitment and train people for roles important to setting and
strengthen group ties
5. Task Focus: get things done with clear goals and productive meetings which increase the capacity of structure to have impact on the community
6. Inclusive Decision Making: genuine power and voice for citizens in making organization plans
7. Participatory Rewards: provide rewards for citizen participation that outweigh costs such as learning new skills, working with others, sense of pride
8. Promoting Diversity: value member diversity which broadens knowledge and social connections. Essential in representing multiple parts of community and have to
make organizational language inclusive. Leadership has to be diverse.
9. Fostering Inter-group Collaboration: promote and respect both macro-belongings (overall sense of community) and micro-belongings (id with other groups)
Can be organized into three groups 1) Group Solidarity (group-based and strength based belief system, social support, shared inspiring leadership) 2) Member
Participation (participatory niches, opportunity roles structures, task focus, inclusive decision-making, participatory rewards) 3) Diversity and Collaboration
(promoting diversity, fostering inter-group collaboration)
Sense of Community
Community (Sarason): readily available, supportive network of relationships on which one can depend on
Right now we have a greater alienation from communities and we can see in less charity donations, involvement in community service and citizen participation in
the government but participation in mutual help groups has increased
Community (Textbook): group of people affiliate on the basis of common bond like location, religion, profession and nationality
Locality Based and Relation Communities
Locality Based Community: traditional understanding of community like city blocks, towns, cities. Ties exist among community members based on geography and
people with a strong sense of community identify themselves by their locality
Relational Community: communities that are defined by interpersonal relationships and sense of community. Not only based on friendship but also a common
mission ex. Online discussion groups
Sense of Community
Sense of Community: strength of bonding among community members
Sense of Community (Sarason): perception of similarity to others, a interdependence with others and a willingness to maintain it by giving to or doing what one
expects from them. This is the feeling of being part of a larger structure
Sense of Community (Chavis & McMillan): feelings that members have of belonging and matter to one another and a shared faith that will be met through their
Sense of community needs 1) Membership 2) Influence 3) Integration and Fulfillment of needs 4) Shared Emotional Connection
Membership: sense of personal investment in the community. Made up of these attributes:
1. Boundaries: who to include and to exclude. In locality based communities it is based on geography, for relational communities it's set by personal similarities or
2. Common Symbols: help define boundaries, identify members or territory Ex. Anthems
3. Emotional Safety: sense of safety from crime in the neighborhood or secure realtionships for sharing feelings and concerns
4. Personal Investment: investment as a long term commitment to a community
5. Sense of Belonging and Identification: person is accepted by other community members and their identity is defined by their membership in the community
the power that's exercised by members over the group and the power of the group that's exercised over members
Integration and Fulfillment of Needs
Influence concerns vertical relation between people and the community, integration concerns horizontal relations among members
Integration has two aspects:
1. Shared Values: ideals that are pursued through community involvement
2. Satisfying Exchange of Resources among Community Members: the community meets individual needs and also psychosocial needs
Shared Emotional Connection
recognition of a shared bond between memebrs that strengthen through community experiences ex. Celebrations
External Relationships
Strengthen the sense of community which has the potential to increase prejudice towards outsiders
External relationships not addressed in four elements of sense of community. Need to balance sense of community, social justice and respect for human diversity
Neighboring: informal contracts and assistance among neighbors but not the same as sense of community
Sense of community is emotional and cognitive, neighboring involves specific behaviours and personal interaction
Neighboring happens among people who aren't close friends but know each other enough to provide limited assistance and have mutual interest as neighbors
Place Attachment
the emotional bonding o a particular physical enthronement usually to the social ties that were created there
Social Capital
Social Capital: connections among individuals, social networks ad the trustworthiness that comes from it. Refers to collective resources (civic participation,
networks) not material goods. Social resources are based in interpersonal relationships
Bonding: creating and maintaining strong social-emotional ties usually in groups of similar people. Limitation is the lack of diversity and exclusion of outsiders
Bridging: Creating and maintaining links between groups which reaches out to a lot of people. Involves links with people of different life experiences. Strength is
that it takes into account diversity. Limitation is that it doesn't foster a great sense of community like bonding
Community Service Learning
Community Service: unpaid work for community betterment
Community service learning happens when there is an educational reflective component
Most engaged community service build personal relationships with the people
It builds a sense of community, widens boundaries of community, shared emotional connection and fulfills mutual needs