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1 Intelligence.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

Intelligence (chapter 9) The psychometric approach - The psychometric approach to personality and intelligence focuses on the use of standardized tests to identify individual differences among people • IQ tests yield ordered differences among people  Results in an evaluative dimension in which personAis less or more intelligent than person B- test NORMS- comparisons • IQ tests are pragmatically orientated  Determine the type of education a student should receive - IQ tests only tests certain abilities. SATs and successfulness have a weak correlation, other motivations determine your success like motivation Evaluating tests - Characteristics of a good psychometric test include • Reliability which asks whether the test gives repeatable scores (consistency of measurement) • Validity: Refers to the ability of a test to measure what it is designed to measure  Content validity: degree to which the content of a test is representative of the domain it’s supposed to cover  Construct validity: extent to which there is evidence that a test measures a particular hypothetical construct  Criterion validity determines whether IQ can predict a criterion such as school performance  IQ scores correlate 0.5 with school performance Nature of IQ tests - IQ test: a child’s mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 - Mental age: indicates that the person displays the mental ability typical of a child of that chronological (actual) age - Galton’s early theory- intelligence is genetic • He asked himself, why the upper class were successful, he came to the conclusion that it was intelligence; high class people are born intelligent, therefore get better jobs; whereas poor people are born dumb and therefore stay poor. - Binet and Simon created the first IQ test - Binet approach was developed in 1905 byAlfred Binet and T. Simon. The purpose was to measure individual differences in intellectual ability - Wechsler approach involves a verbal scale and a performance scale • Developed the IQ test we use today - More recent entries include group tests of intelligence and infant tests Questions of intelligence testing - What kind of questions are asked - What do scores mean- the normal distribution - Normal distribution: represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in a population - Are tests reliable? Are they valid? (see Sternberg’s 3 factor, Gardner’s theory) (yes) - Does intelligence predict vocational success? (yes, but not a strong correlation) - IQ tests and culture NORMAL DISTRIBUTION GRAPH IN SLIDES An information-processing theory of intelligence - Sternberg proposes a triarchic (3 factors) theory of intelligence - The factors are: • Analytic intelligence: the mental mechanisms that people use to plan and execute tasks • Creative intelligence: the ability to deal effectively with novel situations • Practical intelligence: the abilities that are subject to natural selection  Ex: doesn’t do well in school but connects well with others, aka “street smarts”. Has good adaptability and flexibility Weschler Test Items SUBTEST VERBAL SCALE Information How many wings does a bird have? What is a pepper? Arithmetic If two apples cost $.15, what will be the cost of a dozen apples? Vocabulary What is does _____ mean? Hammer Epidemic Protect - Answers to the following problems depend entirely on your experience and creativity - For example: when asked how many wings does a bird have? Someone may say 1 or 2 or 3, depends on your interpretation Successful intelligence - The ability to effectively analyze and manage personal strengths and weaknesses Neuropsychological theories of intelligence - Gardner proposes a neuropsychological theory of intelligence= definition includes many types of intelligences - Currently there are 8 categories: linguistic, musical, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, and two types of personal intelligence The use and abuse of intelligence tests - There may be cultural biases on tests - The use of the tests to determine who has special needs also is problematic - What purpose is the classification of level of intellectual function going to be used for? Types of tests - Psychological test: standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior - Intelligence test: measures general mental ability - Aptitude test: assess specific types of mental abilities - Achievement test: gauge a person’s mastery and knowledge of various subjects - Personality test: measure various aspects of personality, including motives, interests, values, and attitudes Degrees of mental retardation - Mental retardation (intellectual disability): subnormal general mental
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