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2 Motivation and emotion.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

Motivation and Emotion Motives - Intrinsic:An activity is pursued as an end in itself because it is enjoyable and rewarding • Doesn’t need external rewards, internal drive - Extrinsic:An activity is pursued to gain an external reward or to avoid an undesirable consequence Motivation - Motivation: the drives that propel us. Involves goal-directed behavior - Drive Reduction Theory • The problem with this theory is that humans don’t always follow this theory. Sometimes we do things that make a situation worse rather than better. - Certain drives, like hunger, thirst, and sexual frustration, motivate us to minimize aversive states - Drive: an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension - We’re motivated to maintain a given level of psychological homeostasis - Homeostasis: a state of physiological equilibrium or stability - Incentive Theory: we are externally motivated - Incentive: an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior - Expectancy-value model: we weigh the a) expectancy of attaining the incentive and b) the value of the incentive - Evolutionary Theory: We are motivated instinctively Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs - We won’t go for higher needs in the pyramid until our basic needs are met - Apopular notion but not supported by empirical research - Some sacrifice everything, security and relationships, for example, to get success and recognition Yerkes-Dodson Law - Arousal motivates us - Performance on a task is best when arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task. • Simple tasks are performed best with high arousal level  Easy for you. Ex: Driving a car. You don’t have to think much about it • Moderate tasks are performed best with moderate arousal level  Writing an exam that is difficult. Use moderate arousal to yield the best results  Peak performance occurs at moderate arousal for routine activities • Difficult tasks are performed best with a low arousal level Hunger ****PAGE 417 EXAM QUESTION!!!!!!**** - The hypothalamus – research on lesions to this area can lead to increased or decreased appetite in animals • Area of the brain that largely controls hunger • Lateral (part of the hypothalamus): initiates hunger  If there is a lesion on the lateral part, you will stop eating • Ventromedial (part of the hypothalamus): stops hunger  Lesion here would result in eating excessively - The stomach - External eating cues The Hunger Drive - Primary Drive stems from unlearned motives to satisfy biological needs. Hunger controlled in hypothalamus. Seratonin also related to hunger. - Internal cues motivate hunger by stimulating the hypothalamus in the brain and changes in blood sugar level also motivate the hunger drive. Decrease in glucose can increase hunger - External cues motivate hunger when we see or smell foods that we like: learned cues, stress, inadequate exercise. • Some people would say we learn to be obese (food as a reward, teaching bad eating habits) - Glucose: a simple sugar that is an important source of energy - Glucostat: neurons sensitive to glucose in the surrounding fluid - Obesity: condition of being overweight - BMI (Body Mass Index): an individual’s weight divided by height squared • BMI> 30  obese • BMI between 25 and 29.9 overweight Body Weight/Obesity - Leptin: a hormone that directly affects the feeding centers in the brain • Associated with overeating - Metabolic rate: rate at which the body burns calories • The natural base rate at which our body converts food and sugars into energy - Set point: the weight the body maintains when one is not trying to gain or lose weight. • The idea of balance; our bodies have a natural set point, but we can override this with lifestyle choices, and eating disorders - Excessive eating (stress/social reasons)/inadequate exercise Eating Disorders - Anorexia nervosa:An overwhelming, irrational fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, compulsive dieting to the point of starvation, and excessive weight loss. About 1% of the population - Bulimia nervosa:Achronic disorder characterized by repeated and uncontrolled episodes of binge-eating.About 1-3% of the population Anorexia and Bulimia - Both can involve excessive exercising - The vast majority - more than 90 percent - of those afflicted with eating disorders are adolescent and young adult women - This has led to the popular belief that eating disorders can be attributed to social factors (the heavy emphasis which is placed on thinness as a measure of physical attractiveness and feminine beauty in our culture) - General trends and patterns • Anorexic people internalize behavior problems like anxiety and self-esteem • Bulimic people are usually outgoing, extroversion Eating Disorders - While it is likely that such social factors do play an important role in the development of eating disorders, research has shown that several other psychological and biological factors are also involved. Eating disorders are complex. - It seems that increased serotonin activity in the brain may be responsible for anorexic behavior, while decreased serotonin activity may be responsible for bulimic behavior. Social Motives - Some people have the need for high/low of the following social motives - Achievement: need to master difficult challenges, to outperform others, and to meet high standards of excellence • To succeed - Recognition (what other people think about you) - Affiliation (human connection, bonds, without these developed we would be entirely different than we are today) - Domination (control and power) - Order Need forAchievement - Fear of Success • Some people don’t strive to achieve because they have a fear of success • Could be environmental factors. Ex: pressure, in early life experiences you may have been pressured a lot or told you were not worthy of succeeding - Fear of Failure • People with low self-esteem tend to have this fear EvolutionaryAnalyses of Sexual Behavior - Parental Investment (theory) • Our sexual behavior de
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