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PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

Personality theory and assessment Personality - Aperson’s unique and stable pattern of characteristics and behaviours - Hints that it might be genetic (so the age old questions is brought up once again: nurture vs. nature?) - Temperament is the building block of personality • An individual's unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits - Personality trait: Adurable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations - Factor analysis: Correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables Psychoanalytic theory - Freud - Sex and aggression are desires which are part of human nature that greatly influences out personality - How well we can mask these desires = personality - Psychodynamic theories: All the diverse theories descended from the work of Sigmund Freud that focus on unconscious mental forces - Personality theory - Id and superego are always in conflict. Depending on what happened in your early environment/childhood, will affect the development of the id and superego • Id: operates on pleasure  The devil on your shoulder  The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle  Unconscious mind  Pleasure principle: The principle on which the id operates, demanding immediate gratification of its urges • Ego: makes rational decisions  The decision maker  The decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle  Conscious mind  Reality principle: The principle on which the ego operates, which seeks to delay gratification of the id's urges until appropriate outlets and situations can be found • Superego: conscience or moral self  The angel on your other shoulder  The moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong  Preconscious mind (outside awareness but accessible) Freud’s conscious mind and parts of personality - First to talk about the unconscious mind, how it should be analyzed and interpreted. (Ex: slip of the tongue, dreams) - Conscious: Whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time - Preconscious: The level of awareness that contains material just beneath the surface of conscious awareness that can easily be retrieved - Unconscious: Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior Defense mechanisms - See table - Not necessarily harmful, usually used to protect ourselves but if it’s used too much then it’s bad - Our body shifts to keep desires at bay - Repression, projection, denial, rationalization, regression, reaction formation, displacement, sublimation - Defense mechanisms: Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt • Repression: Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious • Projection: Attributing one's own thoughts, feelings, or motives to another • Displacement: Diverting emotional feelings (usually anger) from their original source to a substitute target • Reaction formation: Behaving in a way that's exactly the opposite of one's true feelings • Regression:Areversion to immature patterns of behavior • Rationalization: Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior • Identification: Bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some person or group Psychosexual stages of development - Anything that happens during these stages is important to the development of personality - Psychosexual stages: Developmental periods with a characteristic sexual focus that leave their mark on adult personality • Oral (0-2):  Oral fixation will lead to the following problems, later in life: eat more, smoke, oral gratification to be sought • Anal (2-3):  Anal fixation: uptight, always anxious, stressed • Phallic (3-7): • Latency (7-11): • Genital (11-adult): - Fixation: Failure to move forward from one psychosexual stage to another as expected - Oedipal complex: Children’s manifestation of erotically tinged desires for their opposite- sex parent, accompanied by feelings of hostility towards their same-sex parent Carl Jung (1875-1961) - Colleague/student of Freud, but broke off from Freud, but agrees with Freud about the importance of the unconscious mind - Personal unconscious: Develops from one’s own experience • The level of awareness that houses material that is not within one's conscious awareness because it has been repressed or forgotten • Repressed, forgotten, from early childhood experiences, influences memory and behaviour - Collective unconscious: Contains universal experiences from humankind • Astorehouse of latent memory traces inherited from people's ancestral past • Images and symbols, archetypes, collective concepts of a supreme being - Archetypes: Inherited tendencies to respond to universal human situations in particular ways • Emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning - Introverts: People who tend to be preoccupied with the internal world of their own thoughts, feelings, and experiences - Extraverts: People who tend to be interested in the external word of people and things Alfred Adler - What drives us what drives us? For superiority, personally do well - Inferiority complex • Where we feel weak and inadequate, early development influences this complex • Compensation: Efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one's abilities - Superiority complex • Feel that we are better than everyone else, where a child isn’t taught social behaviors or to get along with others. the y end up learning to be narcissistic • Striving for superiority: The universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges - Individual develops own “Style of Life” • Where we achieve all that we can Identification of personality traits - Allport looked at the English language - Cattell listed 16 personality variables - Eysenck suggests that there are only 3 bipolar dimensions to personality • Introversion- extroversion • Neuroticism- emotional stability • Psychoticism-
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