- The area of study that attempts to explain how the actual, imagined, or implied presence
of others influences the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals.
- We need social environments. It doesn’t take long to see devastating results when
- Social psychology: The branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals'
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others.
- Primacy effect
• Information you get 1 is the information that you retain/ impacts you.
• First impressions are most enduring. We manage our impression every day. We
usually do it non-verbally (aka how you dress) and sometimes verbally (aka how you
talk, language style)
• Recency effect is the information that we receive last that impacts us the most
• Primacy effect sets us up for expectations and with expectations you keep them in
mind while you process ambiguous thoughts in a biased way because of the
previously set expectations.
- Social schemas = stereotypes
• It takes less mental energy to lump people together into schemas and stereotypes.
• Social schemas: Organized clusters of ideas about categories of social events and
Mental map. Way we think
• Stereotypes: Widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of
their membership in a particular group.
Most common are based on age, sex, ethnicity
Gender stereotype: women are emotional
Age stereotype: old people are slow and frigid
Ethnic stereotype: Germans are methodical
Occupational stereotype: lawyers are manipulative
Automatic. Saves time. Don’t need to get to know people individually - Attractiveness
• Good looking people are not convicted as harshly, they are also perceived as more
competent and smart, confident and sociable, more positive attributes (we rate them).
Tend to get better jobs, marks.Attractive people have an advantage.
- Attributions: Inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others' behavior, and
their own behavior.
- Attributions: to what do attribute success and failure – internal/external
• The way in which you explain success and failure of yourself and others.
• Internal attributions: yourself
Internal attributions: Ascribing the causes of behavior to personal dispositions,
traits, abilities, and feelings.
• External attributions: environment
External attributions: Ascribing the causes of behavior to situational demands and
• Don’t want to see internal attributes for failures and external attributes for success.
- Situational attributions: The person attributes behavior to some external cause or factor
operating with the situation.
• Situational attributes are external attributes
- Dispositional attributions: The person attributes the behavior to some internal cause or
• Dispositional attributes are internal attributes
- Actor-Observer Bias: The tendency to attribute our own shortcomings primarily to
situational factors and those of others to internal or dispositional factors.
• Make shortcomings of others are internal and shortcomings of yourself are external.
• Excuses you – ex: I failed the exam because of a dumb teacher
• Protects our self-esteem, self worth to a certain point but if done constantly we’ll
never take responsibilities.
Fundamental attribution error - Fundamental attribution error: Observers' bias in favor of internal attributions in
explaining others' behavior.
- Our overemphasis on internal factors and underestimation of external factors when we
explain other people’s behavior
- Criticizing someone else and saying they’re bad when you yourself did the same thing
- We rate ourselves high than others
- Self-serving bias: The tendency to attribute one's successes to personal factors and one's
failures to situational factors.
- We attribute our successes to dispositional causes and failures to situational causes
• Internal dispositional: I succeed
• External dispositional: I fail
• This is good sometimes but when done to the extreme you lose touch with reality.
Factors influencing attraction
- Proximity or geographic closeness
- Reciprocity or reciprocal liking
• Reciprocity: Liking those who show that they like you.
• Reciprocity norm: The rule that people should pay back in kind what they receive
• Matching hypothesis
Matching hypothesis: The idea that males and females of approximately equal
physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners.
• Marry for love
• Success, economic standing/status, good health
• Marriage based on similarity are the most successful
Attachment and later relationships
- Parent’s care giving style; Warm/responsive, rejecting, inconsistent • Warm/responsive: cares and nurturing. SECURE
• Rejecting: cold, harsh.AVOIDANT
• Inconsistent: often the parents don’t care, indifferent.AMBIVALENT
- InfantAttachment: Secure,Avoidant,Ambivalent
• Secure is correlated with warm/responsive
• Avoidant is correlated with rejecting
• Ambivalent is correlated with inconsistent
- AdultAttachment: Secure,Avoidant,Ambivalent
• Secure: okay and good healthy relationships, trusts others.
• Avoidant: aggressive; has learnt not to trust others, bad relationships.
• Ambivalent: anxious relationships, low self esteem, always feels like they’re not
worthy of love. Low confidence in relationships.
- Overbearing parents: high anxiety, trouble making decisions, does not give the child a
chance to learn autonomy.
- If you have one good parent and one bad parent, the negative effects are not necessarily
- Conformity – SolomonAsch study
• Conformity: The tendency for people to yield to real or imagined social pressure.
- Obedience – Stanley Milgram study KNOW THIS!!!!
• Obedience: Aform of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands,
usually from someone in a position of authority.
• Milgram: proximity to the person you were shocking affects your ability to conform;
the location of the researcher also affects this.
- Foot-in-the-door technique: First make a small request and follow it with a larger
request. • Foot-in-the-door technique: Getting people to agree to a small request to increase the
chance that they will agree to a larger request later.
• Incremental changes equals less resistance to change from others
- Door-in-the-face technique: First make a large unreasonable request and follow it with