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6 Psychological disorders.docx

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Carleton University
PSYC 1002
Kim O' Neil

Psychological disorders Criteria ofAbnormal Behavior - Statistical rarity A lot more common than we think. At least 50% of us will suffer from a psychological disorder like anxiety. We all feel abnormal behavior at some point in our lives. - Subjective distress - Impairment To our normal functions (ex: depression) - Societal disapproval Goes against cultural norms, highly subjective; varies from culture to culture. - Biological dysfunction Suffer physically (ex: addict) Historical Conceptions of Mental Illness - Demonic model – view of mental illness in which odd behavior, hearing voices, or talking to oneself was attributed to evil spirits infesting the body. Ex: Salem Witch Hunt - Medical model – perception that mental illness was due to a physical disorder requiring medical treatment • Ex: electric shocks, drilling holes into people’s heads, bleeding and lobotomy. - Governments began to house troubled individuals in asylums More Modern Approaches - Moral treatment – approach to mental illness calling for dignity, kindness, and respect for the mentally ill - Deinstitutionalization – 1960s-70s government policy that focused on releasing hospitalized psychiatric patients into the community and closing mental hospitals Abnormal Behavior (Ex: media causing eating disorders) Perspectives on Causes, Treatment, and Diagnosis of Psychological Disorders - Biological • Genetic, ex: identical twin studies, if one twin has a disorder so will the other - Biopsychosocial - Psychodynamic • The unconscious (unresolved conflicts which surface) - Learning • Ex: phobias (classically conditioned) - Cognitive Misconceptions about Psychiatric Diagnosis - Psychiatric diagnosis is nothing more than pigeonholing, like sorting people into different “boxes” • Boxes  Aka labelling, which some people dislike because it’s like a self- fulfilling prophecy, but it can also help with treatments • Psychiatrists actually realize that people differ - Psychiatric diagnoses are unreliable • For major mental disorders, interrater reliability is high  Interrater reliability More than 1 person makes a diagnosis of the same person ad we take both diagnosis and see if they are the same. - Psychiatric diagnoses stigmatize people • Contrary to labeling theorists’ claims, diagnoses may improve others’perceptions of the mentally ill  Labeling theorists’ Subjective, looking at individual cases Psychiatric Diagnosis Today: The DSM-IV - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) - diagnostic system containing theAmerican PsychiatricAssociation (APA) criteria for mental disorders - Provides a list of symptoms and a decision rule on how many of these symptoms must be present for a diagnosis - Biopsychosocial approach – acknowledges the interplay between biological, psychological, and social influences - Utilizes prevalence of mental disorders and assesses patients along multiple axes (dimensions of functioning) • Prevalence: The percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period. Major DSM-IV Categories of Mental Disorders - Epidemiology & Prevalence - 5 Axis: KNOW THESEAND BEABLE TO DEFINE THEM!!! • Clinical  Aka checklists • Personality Disorders/Mental Retardation • Medical Conditions  Biological impairments • Psychosocial/Environmental Problems  Social environment, interpersonal relationships and family ties • GlobalAssessment of Functioning  Functioning in terms of work and school Criticisms of the DSM-IV - Mathematics Disorder • We don’t take into consideration social and cultural situations • Tells us little beyond difficulties learning math - Not everything is based on scientific data • Some disorders are based on subjective committee decisions - High level of comorbidity among diagnoses • Comorbidity  When two things go together. There’s a lot of overlap with disorders so it creates a problem when diagnosing disorders • Comorbidity: The coexistence of two or more disorders. - Exclusive reliance on a categorical model • Some mental disorders may better fit a dimensional model, where disorders differ from normal functioning by degree rather than kind (e.g., depression, anxiety) Anxiety Disorders - This is suspected as an underreported disorder. Anxiety disorder is not necessarily permanent. - GeneralizedAnxiety Disorder – continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability • Generalized anxiety disorder: Apsychological disorder marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat. • Spend on average 60% of each day worrying, compared with 18% of the general population • Often experience other anxiety disorders such as panic disorder or phobias • Anxiety disorder:Aclass of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety. - Panic Disorder • Comorbid with anxiety disorder. It’s the physical manifestation of GAD, feels like your having a heart attack. You can have GAD and not PD • Nervous feelings escalate to fear/terror • About 20-25 percent of college students report at least one panic attack within a year • Panic disorder: Atype of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly. Phobias - Phobia: intense fear of an object or situation greatly out of proportion to its actual threat - Phobic disorder: Atype of anxiety disorder marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no realistic danger. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - OCD  associated with phobias - Marked by repeated and lengthy (>1 hour/day) immersion in obsessions, compulsions, or both • OCD:Atype of anxiety disorder marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions). - Obsessions – persistent ideas, thoughts, or impulses that are unwanted and inappropriate, cause marked distress (e.g., contamination, aggression) - Compulsions – repetitive behaviors or mental acts preformed to reduce or prevent stress (e.g., repeated checking) PTSD - Catastrophic Event - Chronic Stress - Symptoms: nightmares, flashbacks, disturbed social relations, arousal, anxiety, guilt • ALSO losing touch with reality - Etiology of Anxiety Disorders: (Etiology= causes) • Biological  There may be an underlying genetic personality that makes you more susceptible to PTSD  GABA and serotonin are linked to anxiety • Conditioning/Learning • Cognitive • Stress  High stress is linked to an increase in the disorder chances. Somatoform Disorders - Somatoform disorder: Class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments with no authentic organic basis that are due to psychological factors. - Hypochondriasis: disorder where the person is overly concerned about their health, and fears that their bodily systems are a sign of some serious disease. • The root cause is psychological. Ex: can’t move your arm, no physical cause; just the loss of a sensory function due to psychological causes. • Hypochondriasis: somatoform disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses. - Conversion disorder: Occurs when there is a loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body that is not due to a physical cause but that solves a psychological problem. • Conversion disorder: Asomatoform disorder characterized by a significant loss of physical function (with no apparent organic basis), usually in a single organ system. - Etiology: • Personality Very emotional, dramatic, self-centered. • Cognitive Pessimistic, engages in catastrophic thinking. • Sick Role To get attention or to avoid life challenges. Dissociative Disorders - DissociativeAmnesia:Acomplete loss of the ability to recall personal information or identify past experiences that cannot be attributed to forgetfulness or substance abuse. • Having no memory of traumatic events (ex: if you were sexually abused as a child you would not remember this). Inability to recall personal stuff. Ex: you might not remember your name or people in your family. • There is no biological cause • Dissociative amnesia: Asudden loss of memory of important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting. - Dissociative fugue:Amnesia coupled with flight. • Do not remember anything about personal events. • Dissociative fugue: Adisorder in which people lose their memory of their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity. Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) - Early stages are easily confused with schizophrenia. - Dissociative identity disorder: Atype of dissociative disorder characterized by the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities.Also called multiple-personality
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