- Behaviour: example of a program that is to help: Big Brother, Big Sisters; basically
giving them a new model to learn from.
- Cognitive: teaching you to think differently.
- There are overlaps in the therapy treatments, they are not exclusive.Amix of cognitive
and behaviour therapy has been one of the more successful forms of therapy.
Insight therapies - Insight therapies: Psychotherapy methods characterized by verbal interactions intended to
enhance clients' self-knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and
• Insight into yourself
- Psychodynamic therapy
• Psychoanalysis – free association, resistance, dream analysis, transference
Free association: Apsychoanalytic technique in which clients spontaneously
express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship
Resistance: Largely unconscious defensive manoeuvres a client uses to hinder the
progress of therapy.
There is resistance to the therapist, therapy and denial that there is a problem.
Dream analysis: Apsychoanalytic technique in which the therapist interprets the
symbolic meaning of the client's dreams.
Transference: In therapy, the phenomenon that occurs when clients start relating
to their therapists in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives.
Sometimes there is transference where the patience gets an emotional
attachment to the therapist.
• This form of therapy involves a lot of time and is quite expensive.
• Psychoanalysis: An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious
conflicts, motives, and defenses through techniques such as free association and
- Humanistic therapy
• Goal is self-actualization. Problems arise when the natural tendency toward self-
actualization is blocked by the person or others.
When the goal of self actualization is blocked, the disruption is manifested in the
form of a disorder because it causes the person distress. Not really successful.
• Person-centred therapy (non-directive therapy) Client-centred therapy: An insight therapy that emphasizes providing a supportive
emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and
direction of their therapy.
- Existential therapy
• Emphasis on finding the meaning of life
- Gestalt therapy
• Emphasizes the importance of the clients’fully experiencing, in the present moment,
their feelings, thoughts, and actions and then taking responsibility for them.
• Directive therapy
Getting to be more cognitive
- Problems stemming from interpersonal stuff. Ex: someone close to you died.
- Interpersonal therapy (IPT): specifically designed to help patients cope with four types of
problems associated with major depression:
• Unusual or severe responses to the death of a loved one.
• Interpersonal role disputes
• Difficulty in adjusting to role transitions such as divorce, career change, and
• Deficits in interpersonal skills.
- Couple and family therapy: parents and children enter therapy as a group.
• Very common
- Group therapy: 7-10 persons meet regularly with one or more therapists to resolve
• Works for some but not all people
- Group therapy: The simultaneous treatment of several clients in a group.
- Self-help group: focuses on a single problem
• Works best in conjunction with another type of therapy Behavior therapies
- Behavior therapies: Application of the principles of learning to direct efforts to change
clients' maladaptive behaviors.
- Behavior modification: uses learning principles to eliminate inappropriate or maladaptive
- Token economies: reward appropriate behavior with items such as poker chips, play
money, etc. These tokens can be exchanged for desired tangible rewards or privileges
Therapies based on classical conditioning
- Systematic desensitization: person is trained to relax in the presence of his or her fear
• Systematic desensitization: Abehavior therapy used to reduce clients' anxiety
responses through counterconditioning.
- Flooding: involving exposing person to th