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Midterm

PSYC 1002 Midterm: Review Dr. Danay Novoa


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1002
Professor
Danay Novoa
Study Guide
Midterm

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(Overview of research methods)
Hypothesis is a prediction a theory. These predictions may consist of a direction.
Research questions is a general question posed that may or may not be based on a
theory.
Intelligence
Psychological test:
They are tools that researchers use to measure concepts
Creation and validation are also known as Psychometrics
What is it?
Intelligence: one’s cognitive ability to problem solve intelligence directly. It is assessed
through individuals behaviours
It is an abstract concepts
We can’t measure it directly
How to test: testable term, measurable
Intelligence Tests:
Spearman’s G Factor (1927) two types of intelligence.
G factor - general intelligence for all tasks
S factor - ability to be strong in a specific task
Cattell’s Crystallized and Fluid intelligence (1963)
Argued that g intelligence was divided into two types
Fluid intelligence - one’s ability to problem solve, use reasoning, recall, process
information
Crystallized intelligence - applying previously acquired skills and mental ability to solve
a problem
Sternberg’s triarchic theory intelligence (1985)
He argued that intelligence is divided into 3 subtheories
Contextual - intelligence that is culturally defined.
The definition itself varies based on culture
Experiential - intelligence that involves experiences.
Specifically, how people handle novel experiences and familiar experiences
Componential - focus on mental processes involved in intelligent thoughts
Metacomponents - mental process that monitors one’s cognitive processing
(little man in our heads that control things)

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Performance - mental process taking orders from metacomponents. Applying
knowledge to the real world problem
Knowledge-acquisition - mental process that processes new info and adds it to
the existing knowledge.
Practical - ability to handle everyday life
Analytical - ability to think abstractly and analytically
Creative - ability to be innovative when faced with problem solving
Emotional Intelligence
It is the ability to understand and recognize emotion in the self and in others as well as the ability
to regulate
E.I. has four components:
Perceiving emotions - how well someone recognize how you and others are feeling
Facilitate thought - emotions guide and prioritize thinking emotions and the transition
across emotions.
Understanding emotions knowing the complexity of emotions (association with
experiences) and the transition across emotions
Managing emotions - the ability to be open and control emotions.
How do we test intelligence?
Binet (1900) assessed intelligence levels in children
Mental age - score that indicates the mental ability of a child at a specific age.
Stanford created the Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale.
The scoring of the scale involved the intelligence quotient IQ
IQ = M𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑔e x 100
𝐶h𝑟𝑜𝑛𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑔𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑔𝑒
What makes a good test?
There are 3 criterias we need to meet:
Standardization - indicates that the administration, procedure, and scoring of the test is
uniform.
Test Norms - established when tests to a large sample of people. From these
scored were able to understand where our score ranks relative to others
Percentile - takes your score and converts it into a score indicating the percent of
individuals who scores above you or below you.
Reliability - degree to which a measure or test provides consistent results
Tests-retest reliability - similar results over time
Internal consistency reliability - items assessing the same construct
Validity - degree to which test measures what it claims to measure
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Content validity - content of the test consists of the material it’s supposed to
cover
Criterion-related validity - the degree one measure can predict or is related
another measure
Constructs validity - measure is measuring that it suppose to be measuring
Human Development
Developmental researchers examined the pattern of change that occurs across the lifespan. The
role of biological and environmental effects on growth. Both positive and negative changes
Physical - changes in the individual associated with biological or maturation.
Cognitive - changes in the individual associated with mental abilities.
Social & Emotional - changes in the individual regarding the individual’s emotions and
connection with others
Types of studies:
Cross-sectional design - assessing a sample of individuals at one point.
Longitude design - assessing a sample of individuals across multiple point.
Researchers typically use cross-sectional designs. However, the results of a cross-sectional
design results may not reflect what we think
Cohort effects - differences in groups assessed are a result of differences in time periods.
Longitude design can attenuate this effect but are costly to complete.
Physical Development:
Prenatal:
Germinal stage: conception until zygote attaches to uterine wall. Placenta forms.
Embryonic stage: vital organs form. Starts to look like a human.
Fetal stage: bone and muscles form. Organs mature.
Muscle coordination development:
Reaching objects - Sitting up - Crawling - Walking - Running
Adolescents experiences puberty:
Primary sex characteristics - changes necessary for reproduction
Secondary sex characteristics - non essential reproductive changes.
Brain development:
Prefrontal cortex: last to develop
Impulse control
Personality
Complex planning and decision making (last to develop)
Cognitive Development:
Children process the world in two ways:
Assimilate - interpreting new information using existing schemas
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