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final exam review.docx

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PSYC 1002
Mara Fuentes Avila

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1 FINAL EXAM REVIEW Psychological disorders Criteria to diagnose abnormal behaviour 1. Distress- behaviour that cause the individual or others significant distress often get labeled as abnormal 2. Dysfunction- set of behaviours that prevents the person from functioning in daily life 3. Deviance- behaviours that deviate from what society considers acceptable Diagnosis- the identification of the illness - Involves distinguishing one illness from another Etiology- refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness Prognosis- a forecast about the probable course of an illness Classification systems - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders o Published by the American Psychiatric Association - International Statistical Classification of Diseases and related health problems o Published by the World Health Organization Anxiety Disorders - Anxiety: and unpleasant emotional state for which the cause is not readily identified or perceived to be uncontrollable or unavoidable - Impairs social functioning - Symptoms o Mental apprehension o Physical tension o Headache, sweating, palpitations, hyperventilation o Sexual dysfunction Five types of anxiety disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder - Common chronic disorder characterized by high levels of anxiety not tied to any specific event - Become overly concerned with everyday matters 2 - Restlessness, fatigue, nausea, trembling, lack of concentration, irritability, sleep disturbance - Anxiety is not due to substance abuse or medical condition Phobic Disorder - High level of anxiety that has a specific focus - Irrational fear of an object or situation that has not realistic danger - Trembling and heart palpitations Panic Disorder - Recurrent attacks of anxiety that occur with sudden feeling of terror - Trembling, shaking, chest pain, dizziness, fear of dying Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder - Severe anxiety disorder, associated with a traumatic experience - Nightmares, flashbacks, emotional numbing, sense of vulnerability, anger, guilt, sleep difficulties Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder - Persistent, uncontrollable intrusion of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals - Obsessions: recurrent persistent thoughts - Compulsions: repetitive behaviours or mental acts which are aimed to prevent or reduce stress Cognitive factors associated to anxiety disorders - Misinterpretation of harmless situations - Selectively recall information that seems threatening Dissociative Disorders - Conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity - Patients lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity Dissociative Amnesia - Sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is extensive - Excessive stress Dissociative fugue - Patients lose their memory for entire lives along with personal identity - Excessive stress 3 Dissociative Identity Disorder - The coexistence of two or more personalities - Causes are obscure CHAPTER 14 Mood Disorders - Disorders marked by episodic emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may disrupt physical, perceptual, social and thought processes Depressive Disorder - Overwhelming feelings of sadness - Loss of interest in sources of pleasure - Slowed reaction time - Insomnia - Feelings of worthlessness, guilt - Suicidal ideation without plan Bipolar Disorder - Alternating periods of mania and depression - Abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive or irritable - Inflated self esteem - Hyperactive; days without sleep - Talkative, racing thoughts Manic episodes - Elated, euphoric, sociable, impatient - Racing thought, desire for action, talkative, self-confident, - Hyperactive, increased sex drive and fluctuating appetite Depressive episodes - Gloomy, hopeless, irritable, socially withdrawn - Slowness of thought, obsessive worrying, negative self-image, - Less active, difficulty sleeping, decreased sex drive Brain areas involved in Mood Disorders Prefrontal Cortex- people with depression have lowered activity, explains lack of concentration, problem solving, planning Amygdala- overactive in people with mood disorders 4 Hippocampus- memory and concentration. - Shrinkage in people with chronic depression Schizophrenic Disorders - Severe disturbances in thought that affect perceptual, social and emotional processes - Delusions and irrational thought - Hallucinations - Disturbed emotion - Disorganized speech - Social isolation Subtypes of Schizophrenia - Paranoid: delusion of persecution and grandeur o Angry, anxious and argumentative - Disorganized: childlike behaviour, social withdraw - Catatonic: patient remain motionless o Mute, odd expression on face - Undifferentiated: mixture of symptoms - Having schizophrenia increased risk of alcohol and drug problems, inactive life and suicide Etiology Neurochemical Factor- excessive dopamine Structural brain abnormalities- abnormalities on temporal or frontal lobes Stress- could trigger it in someone who is vulnerable Personality Disorders - Marked by extreme, inflexible personality traits that cause subjective distress and impaired social and occupational functioning - Emerge during childhood or adolescence and often continue through adulthood - The disorder is difficult to treat because of self-denial about the presence or the problem Difficult to treat because of self-denial Types of Personality Disorders 5 Borderline: instability in relation to self image and marked impulsivity Histrionic: excessive emotionality and attention seeking Narcissistic: need for admiration, and lack of empathy Avoidant: feelings of inadequacy, hypersensitivity to negative evaluation Dependent: excessive need to be taken care of Schizoid: detachment from social relations, flat emotional expression Paranoid: Distrust and suspiciousness in others motives Obsessive Compulsive: Orderliness, perfectionism, and control Antisocial Personality Disorder - Marked by impulsive, aggressive, irresponsible behaviour that reflects
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