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PSYC 1002
Ayca Guler- Edwards

Intelligence Lecture 2 (July 10) WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? (answered by students) (Sternberg - 1981) Cognitive Ability Verbal Memory Practical Adaptability Social Problem Solving Goal/intent Apply Experience Genetics PSYCHOLOGY TESTS Mental ability tests  Intelligence (general)  Aptitude (specific) o Areas in which you excel Personality scales  Psychometric approach o Measure motives, interests, values and attitudes Standardization (everyone gets the same test)  Test norms  Standardization group o Compare using an average, (higher or lower the average) Reliability  Correlation coefficient o Tests reliability (i.e. Analyzing two tests) o -1 to +1, closer to 0 is weak o Positive is going in same direction, negative is going opposite direction o Positive (i.e. high aptitude, high criterion) a.k.a. positive slope / o Negative (i.e. high aptitude low criterion) a.k.a. negative slope \ Validity  Content validity o Designed what it should measure o If I give you an IQ test, does it measure your intelligence? o Evaluated with logic more than with statistics  Criterion-related validity o Predicting performance o Positive/negative correlation of their tests (i.e. pilot training -> aptitude)  Construct validity Matt Tang o Measure a hypothetical construct (creativity, intelligence, extraversion, or independence o Related to extraversion, would be strongly correlated o Not related to extraversion, there isn’t a correlation EVOLUTION OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING Sir Francis Galton (1869)  Wrote a book called Hereditary Genius  Believed intelligence came from family (genetics) Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905)  Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale  Children who needed help in the school system  Distinguish between children who were developed normally and others  Mental age o 9 years old, but mental age is 4 years old (needs special assistance) Lewis Terman (1916)  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale  Intelligence Quotient (IQ) = MA/CA x 100 o MA: Mental age, CA: Chronological age David Wechsler (1955) – modern, revisions made  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – verbal and performance (nonverbal)  First to assess non-verbal reasoning  Normal distribution curve – 0.1 / 2.1 / 13.6 / 34.1 o Standard deviations o “Higher or lower than the average”  Devised downward extensions of his scale for children (later) VALIDITY OF IQ TESTS Sternberg’s (1981) categories:  Verbal – determines intelligence o IQ tests accesses only this category  Practical  Social  Which do IQ tests measure? o Does it measure the definition of intelligence? (maybe a type of intelligence) o Problem solving, math, etc.  Stanovich (2009) criticisms o Does not measure generally  i.e. scores really good on IQ test but bad at critical thinking, decisions, etc. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF IQ TESTS Matt Tang Exceptionally reliable – correlations into the .90s Qualified validity – valid indicators of academic/verbal intelligence, not intelligence in a truly general sense.  Correlations:  .40s-.50s with school success o Engaged socially or friends are factors o Attendance, or motivation  .60s-80s with number of years in school Predictive of occupational attainment, debate about predictiveness of performance  Jobs look for interpersonal skills, NOT grades, etc. STABILITY AND CULTURE Stability not seen in infancy/preschool ages Scores are stable around ages 7+ years Increasing changes can occur (i.e. Headstart Programs, Reach Ahead)  Scores would increase dramatically, but stabilizes afterwards over time.  Used in Western Cultures and not in non-Western Cultures  Cross-cultural issues o Studies show that some cultures do not do well o Differences in IQ in different cultures o Smart and not smart races EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE: Mental Retardation (see chart in PowerPoint) Diagnosis based on IQ and adaptive testing  IQ is 2 or more standard deviations below the mean  Adaptive skills deficits  Origination before age 18 Four levels: mild, moderate, severe, profound  Mild most common by far Causes:  Environmental vs. Biological o Environment does impact intellectual development Mental retardation rate is higher in low social economies EXTREMES OF INTELLIGENCE: Giftedness Identification issues – ideals vs. practice  IQ is 2 standard deviations above mean standard  Creativity, leadership, special talent Stereotypes – weak, socially inept, emotionally troubled  Lewis Terman (1925) – largely contradicted stereotypes o Showed that gifted children tend to be socially mature and well adjusted o 2 different groups  High-IQ children in school Matt Tang  Eminent adults who make contributions  Ellen Winner (1997) – moderately vs. profoundly o Very giftedness people lack social interactions and have psychological problems Giftedness and high achieving – beyond IQ  Renzulli (2002) – intersection of three factors o High intelligence, high creativity and high motivation  Intersection is called eminence  Simonton (2001) – drudge theory and inborn talent o Have the ability and work hard at it (practice, mentoring, motivated, etc.)  “Hidden gifted” – students underachieve in school o Underperforming in academics INTELLIGENCE: Heredity or Environment? Estimates 50 to 70% of intelligence is inherited Heredity  Family and twin studies o Identical twins more similar than fraternal twins in intelligence due to greater genetic similarity  Adoption studies o More chance similarity between adopted children and their biological parent
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