Motivation and Emotion.docx

5 Pages
132 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1002
Professor
Ayca Guler- Edwards
Semester
Summer

Description
Motivation and Emotion Lecture 3 (July 12) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES AND CONCEPTIONS Motives – needs, and wants, desires leading to goal-directed behaviour Drive theories – seeking homeostasis (internal) (balance)  Explored fully by Clark Hull  Humans like to be in balance; we want balance o If we get imbalance (stress), we want to cope with it o Hungry (imbalance), motivates you to get food to eat  Drive – motivates to engage in activities that reduce the tension Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli  “whether or not to pursue a goal”  External goal that motivates your behaviour (i.e. ice cream, juicy steak, A on an exam)  Environmental factors; not very much on biological bases of human motivation Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success  All behaviour is driven because we want to reproduce Note: there are two types of motives: biological and social. MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING: Biological Factors Brain regulation  Lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus o Depends on area of brain; rat could under-eat, over-eat, etc. (lesion study) o Lesion study (LH) – animals did not feel like eating at all o Lesion study (VMH) – animals ate excessively and gained weight  Paraventricular nucleus o Contains neurons that respond to hunger and thirst signals o Large role in modulation of hunger o Neuropeptide Y and serotonin play important roles and some others Glucose and digestive regulation  Glucostatic theory o Measures sugar level; brain will monitor glucose levels and signal to eat o Hunger is regulated by rise and fall of glucose levels  Monitored in brain by glucostats – neurons sensitive to glucose Hormonal regulation  Insulin (increase hunger) and leptin (decrease hunger) Note: Environment is able to over-write/influence hormones. MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING: Environmental Factors Learned preferences and habits  Exposure o Different ethnic groups eat different things; some eat bugs o Taste preferences are partially learned associations from classical conditioning  Children to be conditioned to eat bugs, leading to increased liking  When, as well as what Food-related cues  Appearance, odour, effort required  “the need to eat” not to compensate for energy deficits  Sensory-specific satiety – if eat specific food, motivational (incentive) value declines o Many foods in buffet; more likely to eat over-eat o Few foods available; appeal can decline quickly  Exposure to pictures, written descriptions and video depictions of actual foods  Presence of others generally inhibits eating behaviour (social cues) Stress  Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion and overeating  Leads to increased eating – stress-induced physiological arousal (not simulate eating)  Negative emotions that promote additional eating o Expect tasty, enjoyable foods to make them feel better (not very effective)  Does not lead to lasting mood changes EATING AND WEIGHT: The Roots of Obesity Evolutionary explanations  Most animals and humans, in the past, lived in environment with fierce competition for limited resources  Now, we have more high-calorie food, evolving tendency to over-eat Genetic predisposition  Body Mass Index and adoption study  Inheritance of vulnerability to obesity even if raised by adoptive parents The concept of set point/settling point  Set point: natural weight; it will be very difficult to change o Lose weight; have chance to gain back (vice versa) o Monitors fat-cell levels to keep them fairy stable  Settling point: we can change this with long-term changes o Weight tends to remain stable as long as there are no durable changes o Hopeful to those who hope to lose weight Excessive eating/inadequate exercise, dietary restraint  Not spending time to make healthy meals, etc.  Many high-calorie foods available anywhere Eating disorders  Anorexia nervosa – starve themselves, sometimes to death o Physical activity decreases (not increase appetite)  Bulimia nervosa – alternate between binge eating and purging HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE (physiological meaning physical) Excitement phase – increase in physiological actions (respiration, blood flow, heart rate) Plateau phase – same increases as above but not as rapid Orgasm phase – sharp increase in physiological response Resolution phase – period of all physiological responses going back to base line SEXUAL MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1002

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit