PSYC 1002 Study Guide - Bulimia Nervosa, Anorexia Nervosa, Clark L. Hull

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Published on 19 Jul 2012
School
Carleton University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1002
Motivation and Emotion
Lecture 3 (July 12)
MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES AND CONCEPTIONS
Motives needs, and wants, desires leading to goal-directed behaviour
Drive theories seeking homeostasis (internal) (balance)
Explored fully by Clark Hull
Humans like to be in balance; we want balance
o If we get imbalance (stress), we want to cope with it
o Hungry (imbalance), motivates you to get food to eat
Drive motivates to engage in activities that reduce the tension
Incentive theories regulation by external stimuli
“whether or not to pursue a goal”
External goal that motivates your behaviour (i.e. ice cream, juicy steak, A on an exam)
Environmental factors; not very much on biological bases of human motivation
Evolutionary theories maximizing reproductive success
All behaviour is driven because we want to reproduce
Note: there are two types of motives: biological and social.
MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING: Biological Factors
Brain regulation
Lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus
o Depends on area of brain; rat could under-eat, over-eat, etc. (lesion study)
o Lesion study (LH) animals did not feel like eating at all
o Lesion study (VMH) animals ate excessively and gained weight
Paraventricular nucleus
o Contains neurons that respond to hunger and thirst signals
o Large role in modulation of hunger
o Neuropeptide Y and serotonin play important roles and some others
Glucose and digestive regulation
Glucostatic theory
o Measures sugar level; brain will monitor glucose levels and signal to eat
o Hunger is regulated by rise and fall of glucose levels
Monitored in brain by glucostats neurons sensitive to glucose
Hormonal regulation
Insulin (increase hunger) and leptin (decrease hunger)
Note: Environment is able to over-write/influence hormones.
MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING: Environmental Factors
Learned preferences and habits
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Exposure
o Different ethnic groups eat different things; some eat bugs
o Taste preferences are partially learned associations from classical conditioning
Children to be conditioned to eat bugs, leading to increased liking
When, as well as what
Food-related cues
Appearance, odour, effort required
“the need to eat” not to compensate for energy deficits
Sensory-specific satiety if eat specific food, motivational (incentive) value declines
o Many foods in buffet; more likely to eat over-eat
o Few foods available; appeal can decline quickly
Exposure to pictures, written descriptions and video depictions of actual foods
Presence of others generally inhibits eating behaviour (social cues)
Stress
Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion and overeating
Leads to increased eating stress-induced physiological arousal (not simulate eating)
Negative emotions that promote additional eating
o Expect tasty, enjoyable foods to make them feel better (not very effective)
Does not lead to lasting mood changes
EATING AND WEIGHT: The Roots of Obesity
Evolutionary explanations
Most animals and humans, in the past, lived in environment with fierce competition for
limited resources
Now, we have more high-calorie food, evolving tendency to over-eat
Genetic predisposition
Body Mass Index and adoption study
Inheritance of vulnerability to obesity even if raised by adoptive parents
The concept of set point/settling point
Set point: natural weight; it will be very difficult to change
o Lose weight; have chance to gain back (vice versa)
o Monitors fat-cell levels to keep them fairy stable
Settling point: we can change this with long-term changes
o Weight tends to remain stable as long as there are no durable changes
o Hopeful to those who hope to lose weight
Excessive eating/inadequate exercise, dietary restraint
Not spending time to make healthy meals, etc.
Many high-calorie foods available anywhere
Eating disorders
Anorexia nervosa starve themselves, sometimes to death
o Physical activity decreases (not increase appetite)
Bulimia nervosa alternate between binge eating and purging
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Document Summary

Motives needs, and wants, desires leading to goal-directed behaviour. Humans like to be in balance; we want balance. If we get imbalance (stress), we want to cope with it: hungry (imbalance), motivates you to get food to eat. Drive motivates to engage in activities that reduce the tension. Whether or not to pursue a goal . External goal that motivates your behaviour (i. e. ice cream, juicy steak, a on an exam) Environmental factors; not very much on biological bases of human motivation. All behaviour is driven because we want to reproduce. Note: there are two types of motives: biological and social. Paraventricular nucleus: contains neurons that respond to hunger and thirst signals, large role in modulation of hunger, neuropeptide y and serotonin play important roles and some others. Glucostatic theory: measures sugar level; brain will monitor glucose levels and signal to eat, hunger is regulated by rise and fall of glucose levels.

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