Motivation and Emotion.docx

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PSYC 1002
Ayca Guler- Edwards

Motivation and Emotion Lecture 3 (July 12) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES AND CONCEPTIONS Motives – needs, and wants, desires leading to goal-directed behaviour Drive theories – seeking homeostasis (internal) (balance)  Explored fully by Clark Hull  Humans like to be in balance; we want balance o If we get imbalance (stress), we want to cope with it o Hungry (imbalance), motivates you to get food to eat  Drive – motivates to engage in activities that reduce the tension Incentive theories – regulation by external stimuli  “whether or not to pursue a goal”  External goal that motivates your behaviour (i.e. ice cream, juicy steak, A on an exam)  Environmental factors; not very much on biological bases of human motivation Evolutionary theories – maximizing reproductive success  All behaviour is driven because we want to reproduce Note: there are two types of motives: biological and social. MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING: Biological Factors Brain regulation  Lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus o Depends on area of brain; rat could under-eat, over-eat, etc. (lesion study) o Lesion study (LH) – animals did not feel like eating at all o Lesion study (VMH) – animals ate excessively and gained weight  Paraventricular nucleus o Contains neurons that respond to hunger and thirst signals o Large role in modulation of hunger o Neuropeptide Y and serotonin play important roles and some others Glucose and digestive regulation  Glucostatic theory o Measures sugar level; brain will monitor glucose levels and signal to eat o Hunger is regulated by rise and fall of glucose levels  Monitored in brain by glucostats – neurons sensitive to glucose Hormonal regulation  Insulin (increase hunger) and leptin (decrease hunger) Note: Environment is able to over-write/influence hormones. MOTIVATION OF HUNGER AND EATING: Environmental Factors Learned preferences and habits  Exposure o Different ethnic groups eat different things; some eat bugs o Taste preferences are partially learned associations from classical conditioning  Children to be conditioned to eat bugs, leading to increased liking  When, as well as what Food-related cues  Appearance, odour, effort required  “the need to eat” not to compensate for energy deficits  Sensory-specific satiety – if eat specific food, motivational (incentive) value declines o Many foods in buffet; more likely to eat over-eat o Few foods available; appeal can decline quickly  Exposure to pictures, written descriptions and video depictions of actual foods  Presence of others generally inhibits eating behaviour (social cues) Stress  Link between heightened arousal/negative emotion and overeating  Leads to increased eating – stress-induced physiological arousal (not simulate eating)  Negative emotions that promote additional eating o Expect tasty, enjoyable foods to make them feel better (not very effective)  Does not lead to lasting mood changes EATING AND WEIGHT: The Roots of Obesity Evolutionary explanations  Most animals and humans, in the past, lived in environment with fierce competition for limited resources  Now, we have more high-calorie food, evolving tendency to over-eat Genetic predisposition  Body Mass Index and adoption study  Inheritance of vulnerability to obesity even if raised by adoptive parents The concept of set point/settling point  Set point: natural weight; it will be very difficult to change o Lose weight; have chance to gain back (vice versa) o Monitors fat-cell levels to keep them fairy stable  Settling point: we can change this with long-term changes o Weight tends to remain stable as long as there are no durable changes o Hopeful to those who hope to lose weight Excessive eating/inadequate exercise, dietary restraint  Not spending time to make healthy meals, etc.  Many high-calorie foods available anywhere Eating disorders  Anorexia nervosa – starve themselves, sometimes to death o Physical activity decreases (not increase appetite)  Bulimia nervosa – alternate between binge eating and purging HUMAN SEXUAL RESPONSE (physiological meaning physical) Excitement phase – increase in physiological actions (respiration, blood flow, heart rate) Plateau phase – same increases as above but not as rapid Orgasm phase – sharp increase in physiological response Resolution phase – period of all physiological responses going back to base line SEXUAL MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOUR
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