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PSYC 1002 Study Guide - Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Nutrition And Pregnancy, Erik Erikson

Course Code
PSYC 1002
Ayca Guler- Edwards

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Human Development
Lecture 4 (July 17)
PROGRESS BEFORE BIRTH: Prenatal Development (should know these stages)
3 phases
Germinal stage first 2 weeks
o Conception implantation, formation of placenta
Embryonic stage 2 weeks to 2 months
o Formation of vital organs and systems
o Physiological forms hands, legs, etc.
Fetal stage 2 months to birth
o Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply
o Age of viability
Premature can live for about 22-23 weeks after birth
Maternal nutrition
Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems and
May cause diseases or illnesses later on in life
Maternal drug use
Tobacco, alcohol, prescription and recreational drugs (marijuana)
Fetal alcohol syndrome common known cause of mental retardation
Maternal illness
Defenceless immune system not yet matured
Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza
Prenatal health care
Prevention through guidance
THE CHILDHOOD YEARS: Motor Development
Basic principles
Cephalocaudal trend head to foot
o Upper body first then lower babies crawl first using arms
Proximodistal trend centre-outward
o Control over torso before extremities
Babies twist body around first then learn to use just arms for reaching
Maturation gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint
Driving force is infants’ ongoing exploration of world and need to master specific tasks
Developmental norms median age
Cultural variations
o Nutrition, climate, height, hormones in food, pesticides
o Teach babies how to walk at different ages

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EASY AND DIFFICULT BABIES: Differences in Temperament
Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional designs
Longitudinal use same people
o People may want to opt out or take a long time
o One group of participants for a period of time
o Tend to be more sensitive to developmental influences and changes
Cross-sectional use different people
o Cohert effect people may affect your studies (54mins)
o Compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time
o Completed more quickly, easily and cheaply
Thomas, Chess and Birch (1970)
Three basic temperamental styles (building blocks for personality)
o Easy 40%
o Slow-to-warm-up 15%
o Difficult 10%
o Mixed 35%
Stable over time
Kagan and Snidman (1991)
Inhibited vs. uninhibited temperament
o Inhibited 15 to 20%
Shyness, timidity and wariness of unfamiliar people
o Uninhibited 25 to 30%
Less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects and events with
little trepidation
o Stable over time, genetically based
Separation anxiety
Ainsworth (1979)
The strange situation and patterns of attachment
o Secure
Play and explore comfortably with mother but when she leaves baby
cries then she returns and baby calms
Displays more persistence, curiosity, self-reliance and leadership and
better peer relations
o Anxious-ambivalent
Appear anxious even though mother is there, protests when she leaves
but not particularly comforted when she returns
o Avoidant
Not distressed when mother leaves
Developing secure attachment
Bonding at birth, daycare, cultural factors
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