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PSYC 1002
Ayca Guler- Edwards

Human Development Lecture 4 (July 17) PROGRESS BEFORE BIRTH: Prenatal Development (should know these stages) 3 phases  Germinal stage – first 2 weeks o Conception implantation, formation of placenta  Embryonic stage – 2 weeks to 2 months o Formation of vital organs and systems o Physiological forms – hands, legs, etc.  Fetal stage – 2 months to birth o Bodily growth continues, movement capability begins, brain cells multiply o Age of viability  Premature can live for about 22-23 weeks after birth ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS and PRENATAL DEVLOPMENT Maternal nutrition  Malnutrition linked to increased risk of birth complications, neurological problems and psychopathology  May cause diseases or illnesses later on in life Maternal drug use  Tobacco, alcohol, prescription and recreational drugs (marijuana)  Fetal alcohol syndrome – common known cause of mental retardation Maternal illness  Defenceless – immune system not yet matured  Rubella, syphilis, mumps, genital herpes, AIDS, severe influenza  Prenatal health care  Prevention through guidance THE CHILDHOOD YEARS: Motor Development Basic principles  Cephalocaudal trend – head to foot o Upper body first then lower – babies crawl first using arms  Proximodistal trend – centre-outward o Control over torso before extremities  Babies twist body around first then learn to use just arms for reaching Maturation – gradual unfolding of genetic blueprint  Driving force is infants’ ongoing exploration of world and need to master specific tasks Developmental norms – median age  Cultural variations o Nutrition, climate, height, hormones in food, pesticides o Teach babies how to walk at different ages EASY AND DIFFICULT BABIES: Differences in Temperament Longitudinal vs. cross-sectional designs  Longitudinal – use same people o People may want to opt out or take a long time o One group of participants for a period of time o Tend to be more sensitive to developmental influences and changes  Cross-sectional – use different people o Cohert effect – people may affect your studies (54mins) o Compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point in time o Completed more quickly, easily and cheaply Thomas, Chess and Birch (1970)  Three basic temperamental styles (building blocks for personality) o Easy – 40% o Slow-to-warm-up – 15% o Difficult – 10% o Mixed – 35%  Stable over time Kagan and Snidman (1991)  Inhibited vs. uninhibited temperament o Inhibited – 15 to 20%  Shyness, timidity and wariness of unfamiliar people o Uninhibited – 25 to 30%  Less restrained, approaching unfamiliar people, objects and events with little trepidation o Stable over time, genetically based EARLY EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Attachment Separation anxiety  Ainsworth (1979)  The strange situation and patterns of attachment o Secure  Play and explore comfortably with mother but when she leaves baby cries then she returns and baby calms  Displays more persistence, curiosity, self-reliance and leadership and better peer relations o Anxious-ambivalent  Appear anxious even though mother is there, protests when she leaves but not particularly comforted when she returns o Avoidant  Not distressed when mother leaves Developing secure attachment  Bonding at birth, daycare, cultural factors Evolutionary perspectives on attachment  John Bowlby – attachment due to survival value for infants  Raise offspring to reproductive age and develop the social maturity required for successful mating STAGE THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT: Personality Stage theories, three components  Progress through stages in order  Progress through stages related to age  Major discontinuities in development Erik Erikson (1963) – personality continues to evolve over entire life span  Eight stages spanning the lifespan  Psychosocial crises determining balance between opposing polarities in personality  Trust vs. Mistrust – taking good care will earn baby’s trust  Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt – toilet training and others to regulate child’s behaviour; bathing, feeding, etc... child will acquire self-sufficiency  Initiative vs. Guilt – child may take initiative that conflicts with parents’ rules; support child’s emerging independence and stay in control so child knows general sense of initiative and learning to respect the rights and privileges  Industry vs. Inferiority – learning to function socially (neighborhood and school); should learn to value achievement and to take pride in achievement, resulting in a sense of competence STAGE THEORIES: Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (1920s-1980s)  Assimilation – interpreting new experiences in terms of mental structures without changing them  Accommodation – changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences  Four stages and major milestones o Sensorimotor – earliest months of life
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